AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes

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SOEE5136M Geophysical Reservoir Evaluation

Preview Abstract Introduction Interpretation of amplitude variation with offset AVO is an endeavor that may be even more useful than interpretation of attributes that are sensitive to structure and stratigraphy. Attribute Expression of Structural Deformation. Preview Abstract Introduction Geometric attributes such as coherence allow interpreters to quickly visualize and map complex fault systems, salt and shale diapirs, and, in some cases, incoherent overpressured shales Chopra, Volumetric curvature provides not only Attribute Expression of Clastic Depositional Environments.

Preview Abstract Introduction As we discussed in Chapter 1, the development of seismic attributes was closely linked to the development of seismic stratigraphy in the late s e. Seismic stratigraphy is one of the tools used in sequence Attribute Expression of Carbonate Depositional Environments. Preview Abstract Introduction Even though carbonate reservoirs account for a very large percentage of the world's petroleum reserves, most geophysicists do not understand them as well as they understand siliciclastics.

Recently, for economic and licensing reasons, large Preview Abstract Introduction In hydrocarbon production, a geologic hazard is any natural phenomenon that can negatively impact drilling operations, subsurface installations, the environment, historical artifacts, and above all, human safety. Typical hazards include Mapping Reservoir Heterogeneity. Preview Abstract Introduction Understanding and mapping reservoir heterogeneity, including porosity, permeability, layering and thickness of reservoir and seal, and barriers and conduits to fluid flow, are critical to successfully operating a hydrocarbon reservoir.

Steven J. The Jurassic Louann Salt has played a dominant role in influencing the structural and depositional history of the East Texas Basin, particularly during Jurassic and Charles H. Blumentritt , Kurt J.


Marfurt , and E. Charlotte Sullivan. Preview Abstract This chapter was previously published in in Geophysics, 71, no. Volumetric curvature analysis is a simple but computationally intensive procedure that provides insight into fracture orientation and regional stresses. Until recently, Charlotte Sullivan , Kurt J. Marfurt , Alfred Lacazette , and Mike Ammerman. Three-dimensional seismic volumes from the central Fort Worth Basin display roughly circular collapse chimneys that extend vertically about m from the Ordovician Hughes , S. Dhanani , R. Frimpong , M. Gainski , N. Haskell , R. Heath , J.

Kantorowicz , P. Maguire , and S. This is an excellent book for numerically oriented geophysicists and for use as a textbook in numerical-analysis classes. In the first of four chapters, they discuss the electrochemical basis of SIP, offering proof of the validity of using the Cole-Cole model for describing complex resistivity spectra.

Chapter 3 discusses SIP inversion methods, including several methods of calculating the intrinsic spectral parameters of a polarizable body. In Chapter 4, the authors describe their field tests applying the SIP method to prospecting for ore bodies and oil and gas reservoirs.

The material is introduced in part through a reprinting of a paper by volume editor James R. Evans This illustration-rich book explains a broad spectrum of seismic data acquisition operations from a fundamental and practical standpoint, ranging from land to marine 2D methods to 3D seismic methods. The book explains why we use the seismic method in exploration and is written in a manner palatable to geologists, field crews, exploration managers, petroleum engineers, and geophysicists.

The book is written by a senior lecturer at a university and is ideal for use as a text in educational settings. It opens with a brief history of the origins of the seismic method. It explains how to understand what we see on shot records. It examines the problem of noise and how to improve seismic signals using geophone and hydrophone arrays. Other discussions cover land and marine receiver equipment, available energy sources, fundamental stacking methods as an approach to understanding operations of seismic instrumentation,.

Each chapter concludes with exercises designed to emphasize problems of recording field data, including setting up survey parameters. Fundamentals of Seismic Tomography Tien-when Lo and Philip Inderwiesen This tutorial or practical guide on seismic tomography is aimed at an audience familiar with basic seismology concepts and calculus. The intent is to provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of both seismic-ray tomography and seismic-diffraction tomography. Case studies illustrate processing methodology, basic interpretation technique, and pitfalls.

After reading through this presentation, one will have a greater understanding of and appreciation for seismictomography articles found in the literature. Pitfalls in Seismic Interpretation P. Tucker and H. Yorston; edited by J. Nettleton This work is a general view of gravity and magnetics, not intended for experts but for nonspecialists who may not have a thorough appreciation of these methods in the overall petroleum-exploration picture. Submitting work to SEG? An ORCID iD provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher and allows you to ensure that you receive credit and recognition for all your contributions.

Register now! Registration takes 30 seconds and is FREE. Electrical resistivity imaging for long-term autonomous monitoring of hydrocarbon degradation: Lessons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Jeffrey Heenan, Lee D. Slater, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Estella A. Atekwana, Babu Z. Werkema, and Eliot A. Dewhurst Azimuthal amplitude variation with offset analysis of physical modeling data acquired over an azimuthally anisotropic medium, Faranak Mahmoudian, Gary F. Margrave, Joe Wong, and David C. Clennell, Dave N. Dewhurst, and Hege M.

Robertsson, Joakim O. Blanch, Kurt Nihei, and Jeroen Tromp Modeling of seismic wave propagation is a core component in almost every aspect of exploration seismology, ranging from survey design methods to imaging and inversion algorithms. The last time SEG published a reprint volume on numerical modeling was in Full waveform inversion, reverse time migration and 3D elastic finitedifference synthetic data generation are examples of modeling applications that are currently having a fundamental impact on our business. In Numerical Modeling of Seismic Wave Propagation: Gridded Two-way Wave-equation Methods, readers will find many of the well-known and referenced papers from the exploration seismic community as well as some of the key papers that have impacted other fields of seismology.

Because the modeling literature is vast, we have limited the scope of the reprint volume to papers over the last two decades on modeling methods based on the full wave equation. The reprint volume will be of particular interest to researchers and practitioners interested in modeling methods and their applications. The searchable CD includes the page book of abstracts and the full papers.

Getting Started 10 — 3-D Seismic Technology Featured are key articles published in the specialty, selected by an expert in each area, and confirmed by a review committee. In , the editors of this volume compiled a supplement to Geophysics dedicated to this new branch of science. The 22 papers of the well-received supplement recognized by one award for best paper and two honorable mentions for best paper in Geophysics and more than citations in the first 20 months form the basis for this reprint volume.

Seismic Interferometry is an invaluable source for researchers and students interested in the theory and applications of interferometry in geophysical exploration seismic and EM , seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics. Jones, Robert I. Bloor, Biondo L. Biondi, and John T. In that time span, a radical change has occurred in the way seismic processing has delivered a subsurface image.

The traditional purely compartmentalized approach has been superseded by a multidisciplinary collaborative workflow to build iteratively a subsurface velocity model suitable for detailed and quantitative imaging. Works that have had the most practical industrial application are emphasized rather than assessing all approaches equally.

Because of the distribution of papers in this reprint edition, split between migration algorithm and velocity-estimation techniques, this volume will appeal to processing specialists and interpretation geoscientists alike. All of these papers, which often are hard to find, are presented in English. This volume explores fundamentals of theory by Hooke, Navier, Cauchy, Green, Kelvin, Stokes, and Betti; key early papers on anisotropy by Christoffel and Rudzki; fundamentals of reflection and transmission amplitudes by Knott and Zoeppritz; surface waves by Rayleigh, Love, and Stoneley; the first synthetic seismogram by Lamb; and the defining paper on poroelasticity by Gassmann.

In addition, a reprint of A. Each paper is accompanied by an author biography. The book includes extensive references and is an invaluable source for anyone working in elastic wave theory or for those with a general interest in the development and evolution of wave propagation.

Multiple Attenuation Edited by Arthur B. Weglein and William H. Dragoset Thought you knew what primary and multiple meant? This book covers 55 years of fascinating scientific discovery — from the time when geophysicists argued over whether it was even possible to see multiple reflections in seismic data to the very latest developments in data-driven multiple-attenuation methods. Several challenges have renewed interest in multiple attenuation. To meet these challenges, new dataacquisition and multiple-removal technologies are on the horizon. This book provides the background to help geoscientists make the most of these coming developments.

The opening chapter presents papers of historical interest, and the volume concludes with a speculative chapter about multiples used as signal. In between are seven chapters that cover unique aspects of multiple-attenuation technology, including deconvolution, moveout discrimination, data-driven prediction, practical issues, and tutorials and case histories. The volume includes a new tutorial that introduces. All geoscientists who work with seismic-reflection data will find this volume useful. Seismic survey designers will learn how field parameters affect various multiple-attenuation methods.

Seismic data processors will find discussions of the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of different algorithms. The volume will help seismic data interpreters to understand multiple attenuation so they can better judge whether that puzzling event is a primary or a residual multiple. The book is also an indispensable reference source for researchers, students, and geophysical software developers.

Graebner, Bob A. Hardage, and William A. Schneider The 3D seismic method evolved as a natural outgrowth of 2D seismic exploration. This reprint volume attempts to chronicle both the evolution and the state-of-the-art of the 3D seismic method. Papers selected for this volume sample the literature from the early s through From these journals and publications alone, more than candidate articles were identified dealing with some aspect of 3D seismic exploration.

Selection criteria included historical significance, tutorial value, novelty, theoretical importance, practicality, and cost-benefit analysis. The papers are arranged chronologically. The papers in this volume and their rich reference lists cover virtually all of the relevant work on exploration 3D through White Edited by Daniel A. Ebrom This Geophysics Reprint Series volume focuses on seismic wave propagation through almost 50 years of collected works.

It features the intense effort to advance laboratory and field research on the subject during what is often called the golden era of petroleum research. Chapters cover acoustics, field studies, borehole coupling, and acoustical logging. During his career in industry and later in the academic community, J. White was involved in some of the most significant advances in the industry.

His contributions to seismic wave propagation are prolific, trailblazing, and highly relevant to exploration geophysics today. His clear, concise, communicative style will make this collection of great value to students and to practicing geoscientists. Both theories and data collected in this volume can be applied readily to solving problems and making decisions in reservoir and seismic modeling, interpretation, and monitoring.

The bibliography includes more than 1, references. It contains numerous papers that developed both theoretical and practical aspects of DMO, including papers not readily available until now. Examples range from a previously unpublished manuscript for Judson et al. In cases in which abstracts for oral presentations are the most widely available description of often-cited works, the abstracts have been reprinted in this volume. This collection is a useful reference for anyone working in seismic data processing.

Ebrom and John A. Seismic interpreters faced with ambiguities in data analysis have long struggled with the dilemma of either puzzling through the real seismic data or looking at computergenerated synthetic data. Physical-model data lie at an intermediate position between those two extremes. The articles included in this book cover the entire chronology of physical modeling, from the first efforts in Japan in the late s to the space-age laser-ultrasonic experiments of the s.

Of the 44 papers collected in this volume, more than half are from sources other than Geophysics. The applications covered in this book include interpretation of complicated subsurface structures, research into elastic and anisotropic wave phenomena, and teaching of fundamental seismic principles. Pelissier Providing geophysicists with an in-depth understanding of the theoretical and applied background for the seismic diffraction method, Classical and Modern Diffraction Theory covers the history and foundations of the classical theory and the key elements of the modern diffraction theory.

Pelissier The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years.

Seismic Diffraction covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.

The book, which accompanies the SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, describes the design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of an effective microseismic project. The text includes a tutorial of the basics of hydraulic fracturing, including the geologic and geomechanical factors that control fracture growth. In addition to practical issues associated with collecting and interpreting microseismic data, potential pitfalls and quality-control steps are discussed. Actual case studies are used to demonstrate engineering benefits and improved production through the use of microseismic monitoring.

Providing a practical user guide for survey design, quality control, interpretation, and application of microseismic hydraulic fracture monitoring, this book will be of interest to geoscientists and engineers involved in development of unconventional reservoirs. Understanding Seismic Anisotropy in Exploration and Exploitation, second edition Leon Thomsen Understanding Seismic Anisotropy in Exploration and Exploitation, second edition by Leon Thomsen is designed to show you how to recognize the effects of anisotropy in your data and to provide you with the intuitive concepts that you will need to analyze it.

Since its original publication in , seismic anisotropy has become a mainstream topic in exploration geophysics. With the emergence of the shale resource play, the issues of seismic anisotropy have become central, because all shales are seismically anisotropic, whether fractured or not. With the advent of wide-azimuth surveying, it has become apparent that most rocks are azimuthally anisotropic, with P-wave velocities and P-AVO gradients varying with source-receiver azimuth.

What this means is that analysis of such data with narrow-azimuth algorithms and concepts will necessarily fail to get the most out of this expensively acquired data.

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The issues include not only seismic wave propagation, but also seismic rock physics. This updated edition is now current as of Johnston Time-lapse 4D seismic technology is a key enabler for improved hydrocarbon recovery and more cost-effective field operations. Course, includes discussions of reservoir-engineering concepts and rock physics critical to the understanding of 4D data, along with topics in 4D seismic acquisition and processing.

A primary focus of the book is interpretation and data integration. Case-study examples are used to demonstrate key concepts and are drawn on to demonstrate the range of interpretation methods currently employed by industry and the diversity of geologic settings and production scenarios in which 4D is making a difference.

The material, based on the SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, shows how those phenomena arise, how they can be characterized, and the important information they contain. The text shows how spectral decomposition and timefrequency methods have led to improved understanding and use of nonlinear harmonics, near-surface guided waves, layer-induced anisotropy, velocity dispersion and attenuation, interference, and Biot reflection. Accessible discussion is augmented by examples, figures, and references to primary literature for further study.

This book will interest technical managers and those who work in acquisition, processing, and interpretation of seismic data. Seismic Acquisition from Yesterday to Tomorrow Julien Meunier During the last few years, seismic acquisition has gone through a phase of fast acceleration, attested to by the development of wideazimuth surveys, the continuous increase in channel count, and the progress in simultaneous shooting.

These developments, made possible by technological advancements today, will enable the production of clearer seismic images tomorrow. It starts with a short historical overview, followed by discussions of signal and noise. The core of the book is the relationship between acquisition parameters and seismic-image quality.

It will provide geoscientists and all those interested in seismic images with the still unconventional view of seismic data acquisition as the first component of seismic imaging. A variety of applications and real data examples is presented, and particular emphasis is placed on the rockphysics basis underlying the use of geophysical data for solving geomechanical problems.

The book is suitable for individuals from subsurface disciplines as well as drilling, reservoir, and petroleum engineering. The ultimate objectives are to enable technical staff members to maximize the recovery of hydrocarbons. The impact of petrophysical heterogeneity at various scales on the recovery of oil and gas provides the focus for the book. The integrated nature of the book makes it suitable for people from all subsurface disciplines geology, geophysics, petrophysics, geomodeling, and reservoir and petroleum engineering.

Petroleum Geoengineering is also very suitable for directing teams of subsurface staff members. The text describes the main business drivers of the operator and how seismic data help to address subsurface uncertainties for business purposes. The book discusses delineation, development, production, and geophysics applications in heavy-oil and carbonate reservoirs. Also included are two hands-on student problems based on actual projects. Illustrations include examples that focus on business value.

The book will be of interest to geoscientists, managers, and operators. Seismic images are the basis of critical exploration, development, and production decisions. Optimal use of these images requires full understanding of the processes that create them, from data acquisition to final migration. The treatment aims at giving an understanding of basic underlying principles for specialists in all geoscience disciplines and their managers. Key lessons are that nearly all models and predictions without reservoir monitoring are likely to be wrong and that 4D monitoring can be much more than a repetition of conventional 3D surveys.

Better ways are available to measure small production differences sensitively. Geostatistics for Seismic Data Integration in Earth Models Olivier Dubrule This book will help geoscientists to understand how geostatistics fits into their workflow, what tools and techniques they should use, and what added value may result. Geostatistics is now used not only in reservoir characterization but also in velocity analysis, time-to-depth conversion, seismic inversion, uncertainty quantification, and seismic data integration in earth models.

Hilterman During the last 30 years, seismic interpreters routinely have applied bright-spot and AVO technology for recognizing prospects and predicting lithology. New amplitude attributes were added to this technology as new exploration problems were defined. With the high interest in reducing exploration risk, this course addresses the methodology of an amplitude interpretation and the subsequent benefits and limitations that one can expect in various rock-property settings. Practical problems illustrate the assumptions and limitations of commonly used empirical transforms, and procedures for conducting and verifying fluid-substitution techniques are presented.

The book identifies components of the seismic response best suited for differentiating pore fluid from lithologic effects. Field examples emphasize what combination of seismic signatures should be expected for different rock-property environments. To help select the best seismic attribute for calibrating amplitude to rock properties, rules of thumb are provided for predicting AVO responses and interpreting lithology from observed responses.

A case history also is provided. The last part examines the numerous amplitude attributes that can be extracted from seismic data to quantify an interpretation. Benefits and limitations of these attributes in soft- to hard-rock. The Seismic Velocity Model as an Interpretation Asset Phil Schultz A velocity model can have enduring and growing interpretive value, beyond its initial creation to optimize the seismic image. The 3D velocity model often is built carefully with a combination of geophysical and geologic input because of the accuracy demands placed on it by the requirements of depth imaging.

As such, this model becomes an increasingly effective interpretive tool. This volume will be invaluable to interpreters who are excited about the prospect of participating actively in the velocity model-building process and who wish to pursue aggressively the additional advantages offered by using the velocity model during interpretation. Video course, B, is also available. Continued interest in converted P- to S-waves PS-waves and vertical seismic profiles VSPs has resulted in the steady development of advanced vector wavefield techniques.

PS-wave images along with VSP data can be used to help P-wave interpretation of structure in gas obscured zones, of elastic and fluid properties for lithology discrimination from S-wave impedance and density inversion in unconventional reservoirs, and of fracture characterization and stress monitoring from S-wave birefringence splitting analysis.

Multi-Attribute Seismic Analysis on AVO derived parameters – a case study

The book, which accompanies the SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, presents an overview of 3C seismic theory and practical application: from fundamentals of PS-waves and VSPs, through to acquisition and processing including interpretation techniques. The emphasis is on unique aspects of vector wavefields, anisotropy, and the important relationships that unify S-waves and P-waves.

Baker The goal of this primer is to provide a basic near-surface seismic reflection processing guide for workers who have not had industry- or academic-supported training or guidance but wish to maintain the integrity of seismic imaging as a tool for near-surface exploration. Increasingly, shallow-reflection seismology is being used as a noninvasive tool for determining physical properties and geometry of the upper meters of the subsurface. This primer focuses on processing two small data sets using standard common-midpoint CMP processing and includes significant processing pitfalls encountered in previous work.

The authors present general numerical methods based on the complete wave equation for solving these important seismic exploration problems. It discusses the theory, motives, and limitations underlying the most popular DMO methods. Russell An overview of techniques used in the inversion of seismic data is provided. Inversion is defined as mapping the physical structure and properties of the subsurface of the earth using measurements made on the surface, creating a model of the earth using seismic data as input.

Old and new information about geophysical data processing is consolidated in this edition. How to choose processes and parameters for any given field data is shown. Ray Thomasson and L. It is a concise and rich collection of geologic principles for use by interpretative geologists and geophysicists. Although the primary emphasis is on those principles that can affect the seismic record, broader-interest articles also are included.

An understanding of these principles is essential for a comprehensive and complete interpretation of seismic data. The papers are organized by types of source rocks and their maturation, the stratigraphic setting in which hydrocarbons migrate and accumulate, descriptions of both clastic and carbonate sediment regimes, and the importance of biostratigraphy in understanding various geologic settings. They also cover other aspects of exploration, including the application of remote sensing, surface geochemical methods, and geostatistics.

Problems of risk assessment and the organizational concepts and advantages of multidisciplinary teams also are addressed. Sign up today: www. Hinds, Neil L. Anderson, and Richard D.

Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization

Kuzmiski With more than 75 color illustrations, this book demonstrates the utility of VSP processing and interpretation. The basic mathematics behind the wavefield separation, deconvolution, and far-offset processing of VSP data are reviewed in more detail in the appendix. Chapters 3 through 6 are case studies of carbonate reef and sandstone exploration plays from the western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

For each case study, the authors discuss the relevant geology and the interpretation of the existing seismic coverage prior to the drilling of the VSP well, the well results and the rationale behind recording the VSP data, the reevaluation of the surface-seismic coverage based on the VSP and associated well control, and the utility of the respective VSP survey.

Theory of Seismic Diffractions Kamill Klem-Musatov This book is a complete mathematical description of diffractions caused by seismic velocity discontinuities. The author describes elastic wave theory and relates it to the high-frequency approximations of ray theory. This book is an English translation from an earlier volume used for more than a decade by Russian seismologists.

Robinson and Sven Treitel This text, an introduction to geophysical signal analysis, is concerned with the construction, analysis, and interpretation of mathematical and statistical models. In general, it is intended to provide material of interest to upper undergraduate students in mathematics, science, and engineering. Much of this book requires only a knowledge of elementary algebra. However, at some points, a familiarity with elementary calculus and matrix algebra is needed.

The practical use of the concepts and techniques developed is illustrated by numerous applications. Care has been taken to choose examples that are of interest to a variety of readers. Therefore, the book contains material of interest to both geophysicists and those engaged in digital signal analysis in disciplines other than geophysics. This book is a reprint of the Prentice-Hall volume of the same title.

Seismic Filtering Translated from French by N. Rothenburg; Edited by R. Van Nostrand Sponsored by the French Petroleum Institute and of value to all seismic data processors, this tutorial symposium on seismic filtering contains seven chapters, each by a different author. This volume explores issues pertaining to gender parity in the geosciences, and it sheds light on some of the best practices that increase participation by women and promote parity. Highlights include: lessons learned from NSF-ADVANCE, data on gender composition of faculty at top earth science institutions in the United States, implicit bias and gender as a social structure, strategies for institutional change, dual career couples, family friendly policies, the role of mentoring, career advancement for women, recruiting diverse faculty, and models of institutional transformation.

Although the book focuses specifically on the geosciences, the goal is to spread awareness of the best practices for gender parity in academic geoscience departments. Geoscientists, policymakers, educators, and administrators could all benefit from the contents of this book. With examples and exercises that help you see code, real-world applications, and try out new skills, this resource makes the complex concepts of parallel computing accessible and easy to understand. Each chapter is organized around one central topic and includes workable examples that demonstrate the development process, allowing you to measure signifi cant performance gains while exploring all aspects of GPU programming.

The book makes complex CUDA concepts easy to understand for anyone with knowledge of basic software development with exercises designed to be both readable and high-performance. For the professional seeking entrance to parallel computing and the high-performance computing community, this book is an invaluable resource, with the most current information available on the market. There is something for every subsurface professional in these 52 short essays by more than three dozen petroleum geoscientists.

The roster includes some of the most prolific geophysicists of our time, as well as some recently qualified scientists. The topics are even more diverse, ranging from anisotropic media to prestack interpretation, and from stories of early seismic workstations to career advice for the future. Every subsurface professional will enjoy these 52 short essays by more than 40 petroleum geoscientists. The list of authors includes some of the most successful explorationists of our time, as well as some scientists right at the start of their careers.

The range of topics could scarcely be broader, covering fieldwork and mapping, beaches and turbidites, and ways to handle the inevitable uncertainty in all geological models. These data are ideal for low-frequency and sensor comparison research. This package includes SEG-Y format shot gathers sorted by type of geophone and component vertical or horizontal , accompanied by observers and survey notes, stacked and migrated sections SEG-Y , and well-log data sonic, dipole sonic, and density logs from the area.

The data were acquired using 6-kg dynamite shots into four receiver configurations: 1C arrays, 3C Hz geophones, 3C 4. The data are included on two DVDs as raw vertical and horizontal shot gathers with geometry in the headers. The collection includes several other valuable components, such as stacked and migrated data, 3C-3D VSP data, well logs, and related research reports and theses. These chart books date to the s. Several loginterpretation references are included. Lines, Donald C. Lawton, and Samuel H. Gray This book evolved from a project of the Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists Superfund, a fund designed to support exploration geophysics research at Canadian universities.

This book is intended for seismic processors, interpreters, and researchers. It starts with a description of exploration problems in complex overthrust environments and then develops practical solutions in terms of migration methods and applications. The book gives heuristic descriptions of mathematical algorithms and provides case-history applications from overthrust belts. In addition to conventional poststack and prestack depth-migration approaches, the book examines migration from topography and anisotropic migration methods while providing examples derived from model and real data sets.

Because of the increasing interest in Foothills oil and gas exploration, the book should provide valuable information for practitioner and theoretician alike. Elements of 3-D Seismology, second edition Christopher L. Liner Elements of 3-D Seismology, second edition is a thorough introduction to the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of 3D seismic data. Developed from university courses, the text teaches the fundamentals of 3D seismic theory, techniques, and application. Discussions include: conceptual and historical foundations of modern reflection seismology; an overview of seismic wave phenomena in acoustic, elastic, and porous media; acquisition principles for land and marine seismic surveys; methods used to create 2D and 3D seismic images from field data; concepts of dip moveout, prestack migration, and depth migration; concepts and limitations of 3D seismic interpretation for structure, stratigraphy, and rock property estimation; and the interpretation role of attributes, impedance estimation, and AVO.

Aminzadeh, J. Brac, and T. The salt model and some accompanying synthetic data sets are presented on one CD, and the overthrust model and accompanying data sets are provided on the other two CDs. Three-dimensional model data are useful for testing 3D processing algorithms e.

They also can be used for training and for benchmarking different hardware platforms. This project is a result of collaborative efforts of geophysicists, geologists, and computer scientists from more than 50 organizations. Expanded and updated from the original. A preview package may be purchased to evaluate the video series but is not suitable for use in training sessions.

Preview charge will be applied toward the purchase of the course. Shipping charges within the United States are included with prepaid purchases. The product license is for single workstation use only. A DVD drive is required for operation. The archivewide full-text search engine works on nearly all operating systems. Installations of Adobe Reader and a Web browser are required. The search engine and the archive documents may be run completely from the DVDs or may be copied to and run from a local drive.

Content includes Geophysics, —, and The Leading Edge, — An update disc is included for It features interviews with more than 25 geophysicists from around the world in a wide range of applied geophysics disciplines. Several ancillary features include a video on geophysics students, the SEG film Seeing the Unseen, a collection of 97 human-interest stories published in The Leading Edge since , and an SEG-industry-world timeline. The classical meaning of the word dispersion is frequencydependent velocity. Here we take a more general definition that includes not just wave speed but also interference, attenuation, anisotropy, reflection characteristics, and other aspects of seismic waves that show frequency dependence.

At first impression, the topic seems self-evident: of course everything is frequency dependent. Much of classical seismology and wave theory is nondispersive: the theory of P- and S-waves, Rayleigh waves in a half-space, geometric spreading, reflection and transmission coefficients, head waves, and so forth.

This cutoff value was used to mask out inverted density values for silts and shales. Analysis of Figures 6a and 6b shows three distinct sand bearing channels. The coherence time slice indicates the boundaries of the channels clearly and the gamma ray inversion helps in interpreting major sand bodies within the channels. The incompressibility coefficient Lambda was determined by dividing the Lambda rho value by the inverted bulk density. The results are represented in Figure 7. High values of incompressibility are thought to represent brine and are colored blue, with lower more compressible values colored green, suggesting oil or red, suggesting gas.

Analysis of the rigidity coefficient Mu suggests that the sands observed within the longer, north-south trending sand body on the eastern half of the survey contain a different rock type than the sand bodies present in the west half of the survey. These results are consistent with the observed production from the two gas wells that penetrate the north-south channel.

The geomorphology of this north-south channel indicates that it was deposited in a different depositional cycle than were the other channels, providing for the potential opportunity for a different lithology to de deposited. AVO inversion results for the estimation of Lame parameters were successfully integrated with seismic attribute volumes derived from neural network analysis. The results were converted to volumes of log gamma ray and bulk density. These geologically meaningful parameters contributed to the estimation of relative sand distribution, porosity and fluid content estimates.

We wish to acknowledge Kicking Horse Resources Ltd. Burianyk, M. Diaz, E. Dufour, J, Squires, J. Goodway, W.

Semisupervised sequence modeling for elastic impedance inversion | Interpretation | GeoScienceWorld

Hampson, D. Use of multiattribute transforms to predict log properties from seismic data : Geophysics, 66, Leiphart, D. Comparison of linear regression and a probabilistic neural network to predict porosity from 3-D seismic attributes in Lower Brushy Canyon channeled sandstones, southeast New Mexico : Geophysics,66, Ma, X. Pruden, D. Schlumberger, Inc. Etris, Nick J. Crabtree and Jan Dewar Errors and Omissions A large volume of data is being converted to make this online archive. If you notice any problems with an article examples: incorrect or missing figures, issue with rendering of formulas etc.

The CSEG does not endorse or warrant the information printed. Article References Print. Fig 1a: A horizon slice through the coherence volume at the level of the reservoir. The definition of the main incised valley now seems quite clear. Fig 1b: A composite volume containing the complex trace envelope attribute as well as the intact coherence coefficients. High envelope amplitudes are seen within the incised valley, though, while these displays were quite revealing, they do not provide information that can separate tight lithic sands from productive Glauconite sands.

Using Seismic Attributes to Improve Geological & Geophysical Interpretation

Inversion for geological parameters AVO inversion as described above yields several seismic attribute volumes which all contain fluid and lithological information: Density scaled compressibility Density scaled rigidity Derived normal incidence P-wave stack P impedance reflectivity S impedance reflectivity Fluid factor stack Fatti et al, Figure 2 shows the Lambda-Rho and Mu-Rho sections with the anomaly enclosed in a yellow polygon.

Fig 2a: Time slice from Lambda-Rho showing the suspected gas anomaly. Low values of Lambda-Rho are shown in blue. Fig 2b: Time slice from Mu-Rho showing the suspected gas anomaly showing high values of Mu-Rho in yellow and red. The red polygon encloses all the live data points on both the time slices.

AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes
AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes
AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes
AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes
AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes
AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes

Related AVO and Seismic Attributes: Principles and Applications - Course Notes

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