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Rostow’s Stage of Economic Growth (Criticism)
Diese Seite ausdrucken Growth criticism and Growth: Unlimited growth destroys limited systems Growth criticism and Growth: Unlimited growth destroys limited systems How large a percentage of economic growth would you prefer? However, behind such statements, election campaign slogans, economic interests, desires and approaches to problem solving are unquestioned myths as well as the lasting, but destructive misbelieve that ulimited growth is possible on a permanent basis.
A quantity growing exponentially will be multiplied by thousand each time after it has reached tenfold duplication.
Thus exponential economic growth is not possible and will inevitably lead to self destruction. Therefore economic growth cannot serve as a global long-term solution to current problems. Previously in the course of history a period of strong economic growth has always been cut off by periodic wars.
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It would be a good idea to aspire to manage the problems currently facing mankind without resolving to yet another great and probably last war. In the course of public debate countries with a stronger more exemplary growth are named to sustain the argument. Idealizing the booming Japanese economy, the media along with policy makers requested that German employees adopt the Japanese model at last.
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Then, in , when, as a consequence of exponential growth, the Japanese real estate bubble burst and the stock market collapsed, German headlines had certainly finished hailing the Japanese model. This media fiasco was however, never properly dealt with. The media today does not mention the public dept accumulated by some of the countries, which are to serve as examples of good practice today.
Our economic growth is still intrinsically linked to rising energy and resources consumption.
However, the end of the oil and uranium era is foreseeable and might even be hurried along by the export of our system of wasteful over consumption to China and India. Evidence is among others the recognisable shortage of fossil raw materials and the resulting increase of gasoline prices.
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This global decrease in oil supply triggers classical symptoms of addiction; instead of decreasing energy consumption and supporting alternatives, politicians call for intensified oil production and for a much tougher energy drug, called nuclear energy. The environmental movement in Germany has already achieved a great deal. Air and water pollution levels have dropped severely and there have been many other successes too. This however, signifies no more or less than that global destruction is developing slower in this part of the world.
Us people in Germany are still part of the small rich proportion of humanity, who is wasting the larger part of energy and raw materials and is hence responsible for global environmental pollution. Parts of the developing world, especially China and India, are currently in the process of emulating our destructive economic model of overexploitation and is becoming industrial competition to be taken seriously. Out media still uncritically hails this commencing automobile boom in these countries; although the results of this boom for ecology and world climate are no longer a subject for discussion.
Conditions for Criticism: Authority, Knowledge, and Literature in the Late Nineteenth Century
And people in Asia cannot really be blamed for their wish to follow our bad example. Hundred and fifty years of industrialisation have led to the worldwide depletion of energy reserves and raw material supplies, which took millions of years to be created. At the same time we produced hazardous and nuclear waste, which needs to be stored safely for over a million years. During these years regulative oppositions, like trade unions and the environmental movement have emerged in the western world, to attenuate this cancerous growth.
The metastases of this industrial system however, continue to proliferate unhampered in China, India and the so-called Asian tigers with adverse effects for the environment, the social welfare systems and humanity at large. The Club of Rome forecast of about the limits of growth has so far only partially become true.
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However, at the time of prediction the growing economies of India, China and South-East-Asia were still in their infantry. Only now, as these growing markets consume an increasing amount of energy and raw materials, the accuracy of the theses of the Club of Rome will show. The consequences of our actions can no longer be ignored. An older technological model, with industries localized in the domestic sphere and skills transmitted from generation to generation, through hands-on experience, was displaced onto the site of the factory, which brought the worker together with the organizational talent of the manager and the stochastic innovations of the entrepreneur.
As Ohmann explains, this new model required "a high concentration of special and theoretical knowledge, of the capacity to create more knowledge as needed, and of the managerial skill to bring this about.
Criticism is a form of communication
The university would answer both the will and the imperative to knowledge and the demand for skills in an increasingly national population. According to Ohmann, then, the humanistic project and its situation in the modern university springs from material grounds. Ohmann's work is subtitled "a radical view," playfully reinforced by the book's original cover collage, which superimposes the facial images of Edgar Allan Poe and Karl Marx. The graphic conveys the interarticulations of the aesthetic and materialist realms, and poses the conditions by which it is possible to understand not only the role of the university and the ascent of ideas in a market economy, but also the specific performances of criticism and theory.
Not at all an oppositional movement to a "business civilization," the view usually taken by humanists, the "business" of the English department, for Ohmann, is compatible with the rationalizations of the "technostructure" and owes its prosperity to that structure's interventions. Terry Eagleton pursues the provenance of literary criticism and theory back to the "rise of English" and the modern sense of literature that emerged with the English Romantics of the nineteenth century.
A counterweight to the alienation of workers bred by the ravages of the industrial revolution, the literature of the Romantics "appears as one of the enclaves in which the creative values expunged from the face of English society by industrial capitalism can be celebrated and affirmed" p. The Romantics' "creative imagination" was enlisted on the side of the "intuitive, transcendental scope of the poetic mind" p. The literary work as a "mysterious organic unity" was opposed "to the fragmented individualism of the capitalist marketplace," and whereas the latter yields rational calculation, the former offers spontaneity.
In time, the literary artifact would emerge "as an ideal model of human society itself" p. Under the impact of scientific development and the related decline of religious sentiment, literature became in this context a decisive moral and aesthetic regimen: according to one of Eagleton's sources, English literature would in time be solicited "'to save our souls and heal the State'" p.
From Matthew Arnold on, "English," in a period of religious decline, "is constructed as a subject to carry the ideological freight of social cohesion" p. The "poor man's Classics," English literature marked the route to a liberal, humanizing education, first institutionalized as an academic course of study in unexpected venues—not in England's great universities, Eagleton contends, but in the "Mechanics' Institutes, working men's colleges and extension lecturing circuits" p.
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