Research and developmental activities in embedded systems has grown in a signi? Embedded so- ware design is not new to the world, but with the changing time, it has gained considerable momentum in the recent past, and many young engineers are strongly inclined to pursue their future in this? The book is mainly targeted to these engineers who would like to understand in great depth the synergetic combination of hardware and software.
The book is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 1 introduces a brief background about micro-controllers and explains how they are emb- dedintoproductscommerciallyavailableinthemarkettoemphasizethe importance of these in the daily life of mankind. It also gives an insight into the architectural details and embedded system concepts for s- dents' projects to motivate them into this exciting? The rest of the bookconcentratesonsoftwaredevelopment.
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Theintegrateddevelopment environment IDE is introduced in Chapter 2. In the present book all such routine features are skipped. Mastering the basic modules and hands-on working with the projects will enable the reader to grasp the basic building blocks for most programs. Whether you are a student using the MCS family of microcontrollers for your project work or an embedded systems programmer, this book will give you a kick start in using and understanding the most popular microcontroller.
Authors through their interaction with the undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as industry professionals have found that such a book is the need of the microcontroller community interested in C programming. The book will bridge the gap between the microcontroller hardware experts and the C programmers. Major Features The objective of this book is to introduce the readers to the design and implementation of an embedded system.
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It covers the unique requirements and limitations of operating in an embedded environment. It also covers microcontrollers as the most widespread example of embedded systems. In particular, it focuses on the MCS family of microcontrollers, their programming in C language, and interfacing techniques. Special emphasis is to provide hands-on experience for the readers using a hardware and interfacing modules described in this book.
The aim is to empower the reader to actually solve his or her problem with a practical hands-on pedagogy through the hardware and software presented in this book. Acknowledgments We would like to take the opportunity to thank all those who have contributed or helped in some way in the preparation of this text. Particular thanks must go to our heads of the institutions — Professor M.
We would also like to thank Mr. Kamat and Dr. Naik would like to thank their respective wives for their understanding and patience shown when the preparation of the book took time which could have been spent with the family. Additionally, Mr. Shelake and Mr. Parab would like to express gratitude to their parents for their encouragement and support over the years. Kamat would like to dedicate his contribution to this book to the memory of the late Professor G.
Tengshe and the late Dr. Senthil Kumar, Dr. Deorukhkar for help in reviewing and critical suggestions. The past batches of M. Roy, Mr. Rupesh from Satyam Computers must be thanked for generation of problems for programs developed in this book. Jivan S. Parab Vinod G. Shelake Dr. Rajanish K. Kamat Dr. Gourish M. A microcontroller or MCU is a computer-on-a-chip used to control electronic devices. A typical microcontroller contains all the memory and interfaces needed for a simple application, whereas a general purpose microprocessor requires additional chips to provide these functions.
Wikipedia  A highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. PC Magazine  A microprocessor on a single integrated circuit intended to operate as an embedded system. Parab et al. But the crux of the matter is the widespread uses of microcontrollers in electronic systems. They are hidden inside a surprising number of products such as microwave oven, TV, VCR, digital camera, cell phone, Camcorders, cars, printers, keyboards, to name a few.
The last three decades and especially the past few years have witnessed the tremendous growth in the top-of-the-line processors used for personal computing and digital signal processor DSP applications. Today, the use of microcontrollers in embedded systems outnumbers the use of processors in both the PC and the workstation market. The main reasons behind their huge success are powerful yet cleverly chosen customizable electronics, ease in programming, and low cost.
The microcontrollers today are small enough to penetrate into the traditional market for 4-bit applications like TV remote controls, toys, and games. An interesting point to note is that embedded systems are made using all the above-mentioned devices except PC owing to its general purpose architecture. On the other extreme of the spectrum, FPGA-based embedded systems dominate their custom computing architectures.
The technical community also tends to associate various characteristics of embedded systems with microprocessors and microcontrollers.
The microprocessors are typically found to dominate the desktop arena focusing on more and more bit processing capability, with other features such as fairly good amount of cache with memory management and protection schemes supported by the operating system. In the literature many embedded systems products have been reported as microprocessors. On the other side of the processor spectrum, a DSP possesses special architecture that provides ultra-fast instruction sequences, such as shift and add, multiply and add, which are commonly used in math-intensive signal processing applications.
The objective was the development of microcontrollers rather than a general purpose of CPU chips for keyboard scanning, display control, printer control, and other functions for 4 Vignettes: Microcontrollers a Busicom-manufactured calculator. The , , and are very close to microcontroller kind of architecture rather than microprocessor. However, the Intel , which was supposed to be the brains of a calculator, turned out to be a general-purpose microprocessor as powerful as ENIAC. Although interesting, it was not a single-chip processor, and was not general purpose — it was more like a set of parallel building blocks you could use to make a special purpose DSP form .
The other companies were also catching up at the same time. Intel shipped 22 million pieces in The market requirement was so much that the total units sold in three years later were 91 million. The year is a special one for the microcontroller It has celebrated its 25th anniversary. Car engine control units were once perhaps the most prominent application for s. This means only one thing, Intel gives up the microcontrollers for good.
Microcontrollers: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow 1. Requirements of the automobile sector has forced the microcontroller manufacturers to come out with the new bus protocols such as control area network CAN and local interconnect network LIN. The 8- and bit microcontrollers are used for low-end applications and lower-cost vehicles while the bit microcontrollers are used for high-end application and high-end vehicles.
It is estimated that currently 30—40 microcontrollers are used in low-end vehicles and about 70 microcontrollers are used in high-end vehicles. For an example, in the latest technology washing machines, a transmission is no longer required because a lower-cost AC induction or reluctance motor controlled by sophisticated microcontroller-based electronics can provide all the normal machine cycles .
It is also observed that the induction of microcontrollers in a product has increased the market demand of the product itself. In , the shipment volume of 8-bit microcontrollers for digital camera use achieved monthly shipments of two million. System complexity is just as varied, but Bourne Research notes that, more often than not, these products will utilize multiple sensors and microcontrollers .
Another interesting report by the Semiconductor Industry Association SIA reveals that the microcontroller sales are projected to grow by 1.
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The positive growth economics of microcontroller chips also ushers the associated growth of software such as simulators, cross compilers, and assemblers. The market is witnessing many novel supporting software packages with simple user interface with convenient compiling and debugging tools. In general the common road map is characterized by the features like single functional, tightly constrained in terms of cost, power, speed, and footprint as well as continuously reactive in a real-time manner. The microcontroller world is divided over the architecture used.
This imposes the same bit width for the buses irrespective of their requirement, which is not the case with the PIC processors which uses Harvard architecture. The reasons behind this are low cost and inexpensive development software. It has become so popular that about 40 manufacturers now make it with derivatives used for diverse applications right from Microcontrollers: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow 11 simple process control to high-tech telecom.
Table 1. Although industry analysts predicted the saturation of family and also its death, it turned out to be a rumor. Low Power Design The latest 8-bit devices continue to drive up the performance bar with simplicity for usage and ease of programming. Recently, Atmel has also strategically evolved their microcontroller architecture by implementing novel power saving techniques.
These include an ultra-low-power 32 kHz crystal oscillator, automatic disabling and re-enabling of brownout detection BOD circuitry during sleep modes, a power reduction register that completely powers down individual peripherals, and digital input disable registers that reduces the leakage current on digital inputs . This trend is now more pronounced as seen in the newly launched microcontroller cores by Motorola.
These kinds of architectures are in heavy demand owing to such hybrid signal processing requirements in application domains such as speech processing in consumer applications.
This microcontroller possesses a powerful hardware arithmetic unit with bit barrel shifter that can perform simultaneous bit signed multiplication and bit addition. These types of microcontrollers facilitate upgradation of the embedded systems merely with the addition of software utilities. The conventional techniques such as extra design for testability by embedding test points or scan chains as well as external debugger are on the way of extinction.
The new microcontrollers are struggling to sort out the resource requirement vs computational complexity dilemma. The use of logic analyzer for monitoring the clock quality as well as the bus activity has become very expensive and many times physically impossible with the shrinking footprint of microcontrollers operating at the clock speed as high as Mhz.
Although the microcontroller community is still far from implementing the debugging solution for pointer problems, accessing unintialized memory, and interprocess interaction, the chips are dominated with single stepping and breakpoint utilities, e. Web-Enabled Microcontrollers Embedded internetworking allows anytime, anywhere, control of the product with a regular self-maintenance and pervasive, wearable computing. Microcontroller manufacturers have come out with new processors having a built-in capability to cope with the challenges of web processing. Dallas Semiconductor has come out with the microcontrollers that can directly serve up web pages.
Remote devices can have preferences and settings adjusted from afar, just by having their administrator browse a web page hosted by 14 Jump Starting Your First Embedded System Project the microcontroller no other computers required. By using these APIs, programmers code functions without worrying about the underlying interface to hardware peripherals.
FPGA-based platform enables the developer to test thanks to the JTAG philosophy and add features in parallel without the need for repeating the complete testing of the platform once again. Both netlists are technology-dependent because they are created after the synthesis where the customer needs to specify a vendor, target family, etc. Even the source code of a set of HDL testbenches for the cores is also available. Here is a piece of thought for the student community as well as entrepreneurs looking for a successful embedded system project.
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There are lots of sources for idea generation. Ideally your ideas should move from research laboratories towards the marketplace. Many devices and processes around can be improved by the inculcation of microcontrollers. The automation of the nylon rubber stamp making machine described in the case studies is the best example. Are there any simulation tools to model and estimate before the actual experimentation? In what way can the process be made more intelligent or thinking by using the microcontrollers?
Can you think of green house controller without microcontroller? Or the amount of energy saved with the microcontroller-based corridor lighting which is implemented in the case studies. It is always a good idea to simulate the things using the microcontroller IDE instead of rushing to the project board and actually dumping the code in the on-chip memory.
Microcontrollers: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow 17 Moreover, there are simulation tools even to model physical systems such as Proteus which can be used together with the IDE to work out your project. The last question is little challenging. In order to make the microcontroller think or make it intelligent you have to resort to some novel items such as neural net implementation, extrapolation, and statistical techniques.
Following issues pertaining to hardware and software are of utmost importance while executing any embedded system project. The most casual thing for a designer in any microcontroller-based product is the value of the crystal frequency which is The rationale behind this value is the ease of frequency division to yield exact clock rates for standard baud rate generation for the UART.
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The crystal value decides the execution speed, e. If a thorough analysis of the occurrence of real-time events reveals that this speed is not required, then a designer may go for a lower value of the crystal. In CMOS-based versions of , a linear relation between oscillator frequency and power consumption exists. Another lower range crystal value is 7. The notable thing is: using counter1 of ; this gives an even The lower crystal value also enables to access low-speed peripherals and frees the system from electromagnetic interference EMI evident in high clock speed MCUs.
Problems such as reset, latch-up, memory corruption, and code runaway are found to fail the embedded system application due to ESD and EMI. These kind of problems can be solved by using the microcontroller having proper package style, footprint, and maximum number of supply and ground pins . While developing the software it is important to have a modular approach.
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The interrupt service routines should be as short as possible to reduce the interrupt latency. Choice of the language plays an important role to decide the lead time, life and processor migration of your microcontroller-based product. Chapter 2 Integrated Development Environment Integrated development environment popularly known as IDE is a suite of software tools that facilitates microcontroller programming. The IDE passes through the source code to check the syntax. A quick session of simulation and debugging using the IDE ensures the working of the program beforehand.
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The user can verify the results as the package presents screenshots of on-chip resources. A step-by-step working as discussed in this chapter will empower the user to get familiar with the Keil IDE. A suite of such software tools for microcontroller application development is refereed to as IDE. The IDE is generally equipped with powerful code simulator that models operation of the target microcontroller as code execution is in process.
The main feature of the Keil is that it allows C programmers to adapt to the environment quickly with little learning curve. The suite comes with numerous example programs to assist the designer to start his project. With the virtual environment, the available on-chip resources of the microcontroller chosen can be seen working on the PC screen.
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