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Landman Marbury v. In Focus Spotlight on Iraq An information section prepared by the staff of Social Education The special section provides background information on a country and regime that looms large in the news. Surfing the Net —C. Frederick Risinger Teaching about Civics and Citizenship with the Internet This practiced web surfer describes a range of sites every social studies teacher must bookmark.

Trade, Travel, and Scholarship in Dar al Islam —Joan Brodsky Schur Students journey to the fifteenth century Islamic world with this simulation activity to learn how trade and travel fostered intellectual achievement, as well as improvements in material life. What Will Students Remember? Closing a Unit on the Holocaust —Samuel Totten The author suggests ways to close lessons on the Holocaust that will stimulate student thought on the role of citizens in a democracy.

Surveys show that alumni are more likely than are their peers to vote, pay attention to public affairs, or participate in politics. Point of View Multicultural Education in Social Studies —Guichun Zong, Jesus Garcia, and Angene Wilson The authors counter criticisms of multicultural education by describing how its pedagogical approaches promote a thoughtful patriotism. Longstreets Those trying to fit public education, despite its complexities, into the simplicity of the business model may only be causing further harm.

Annual Author and Story Index. A trail of documents recounts the legal battle waged by his supporters to try and stop his execution. Supreme Court Preview Charles F. What Will Our Students Remember? Benton The authors explore using literature to teach controversial topics—like the Vietnam War—from a global perspective. Service Learning in Contemporary Japan and America Joseph Feinberg Both Japan and the State of Maryland are experimenting with student service learning requirements as a way to indirectly combat violence, bullying and truancy.

James McLaughlin, Shirley Hotch, and Gail Sargent After a cultural exchange program in Mexico, a group of American teachers learned to better understand the experience of their immigrant students. The author explores the links between childhood experience and brain structure.

Avery At a time when it is more important than ever to promote tolerance of diverse beliefs, educational research shows how teachers can play their part. Learning to Legislate in an e-Congress Angela Stokes This Internet simulation of Congress allows students to learn by doing as they draft legislation on important topics and try to get it passed. Hoge, Stuart J. Foster, Pat Nickell, and Sherry L. And do they refocus student attention away from fashion toward academics? Students can research and debate the issues by examining what happened in Polk County, Florida, when the school board implemented a school uniform policy for K-8 students.

Landman This article compares state systems that elect judges with other systems for the appointment of judges, in the light of a recent Supreme Court decision that might lead to judicial elections becoming more political. Mehlinger Educating students about a historical watershed like the attacks of September 11 and the U. Here are some good options. In the Aftermath of September Listening, Learning and Teaching This handy, annotated guide identifies the resources provided by NCSS periodicals in the last year for teaching about September 11 and its effects.

Economics and Ethics Michael Hartoonian Businessmen with a single-minded drive for profits often seemed to be heroes in the s, but recent scandals and bankruptcies remind us of the disasters that occur when businesses spurn ethics. Testy Times for Social Studies Susie Burroughs State assessments of social studies have proliferated, and often have high-stakes consequences.

This review includes results from a survey by the NCSS Instruction Committee of the perspectives of social studies teachers on the current situation. Studying the Community Dot Schuler Explorations of the local community can lead to an excellent voyage into knowledge for elementary students. A Poet and a Mystic: Jalaluddin Rumi Carol Tell This thirteenth-century Persian poet can help students learn about a culture and a history far different from their own. Leavell, Barbara Hatcher, Jennifer Battle, and Nancy Ramos-Michail The authors describe a variety of trade books that present diverse and rich Hispanic cultures, along with teaching tips on how best to use these books in the classroom.

Wilhelm The poetry of such writers as Gabriela Mistral and Pablo Neruda can help motivate and inspire students to learn about the Americas. Wilhelm The author provides background materials, journals, and publishers that focus on Latin American history, politics, economics, and geography. The Carter G. Woodson Book Awards These annual awards honor books dealing with subjects about U. Frederick Risinger Will preparing students for standardized tests also help prepare them for the world of and beyond?

Conflicts Global and Local: An Elementary Approach Kathy Bickmore From warring nations to bickering siblings, conflict is a reality that even elementary-age students experience. Learning about conflict—what it is, what causes it, and how it can be handled—is the focus of this fourth and fifth grade unit. Schug, Robert L.

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Wynn II, and Tracy J. Posnanski This Milwaukee program attempts to improve the quality of economic education by teaching urban students the fundamentals of economics. What does a sample census schedule look like? The article examines the census and includes teaching activities that help students understand the importance of the census to the history of our nation. Minority Religions and Limitations on Religious Freedom Eric Michael Mazur America was founded on ideals of religious liberty—but all liberties have limits. Ideology and the Web John K. Lee The World Wide Web is an excellent source of information for social studies classes, but teachers should be aware of the ideologies, both visible and invisible, that frame particular websites.

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Technology Candy Beal With the help of new technologies and some old-fashioned determination, a social studies educator took thousands of North Carolina sixth graders on a virtual trip to Russia. Berson The latest technology hitting social studies classrooms is the handheld computer—a portable device that is less expensive than desktop computers and offers useful capabilities.

Documenting the American South: Thomas H. Jones and the Fugitive Slave Law Cheryl Mason Bolick Online research archives are making it easier for students to do in-depth research with primary sources on a historic topic. Yell An e-book on discrepant event inquiry can help teachers hook their students and engage them in higher order thinking skills. Catherine Cornbleth The author describes the restricting climates that make it hard for social studies teachers to teach effectively and for students to learn well. Moreno Since September 11, the fear of a bioterrorist attack has become widespread.

The authors look at the roots of bioterrorism, as well as the recent anthrax scare, and suggest ways that teachers can address bioterrorism with their students. Globalization: The Inside Story of Our Interconnected World Daniel Yergin A Pulitzer-prize winning author explores the term globalization, how it has changed since the s, and what the future may hold for our global economy. Lockwood became the first woman admitted to the Bar of the Supreme Court. Eli Landers: Letters of a Confederate Soldier Stephanie Wasta and Carolyn Lott Eli Landers, a young Confederate soldier in the Civil War, wrote poignant letters home to his mother, in which he described the battles he fought in, his fears and dreams, and the suffering he endured and witnessed.

Unmotivated Students or Unmotivating Teachers? Jennifer Deng A student teacher, working with students on the Onondaga Nation Reservation, learned important lessons about how to inspire students. A Thoughtful Patriotism Robert Stevens Through poetry, art, and patriotic speeches, students can deliberate on the true meaning of patriotism and become thoughtful and devoted citizens. Update on Afghanistan Steven Lapham Current news, information, maps, and statistics on the war in Afghanistan.

Cases, Controversy, and the Court: Teaching about the Supreme Court Diana Hess and Lee Arbetman In this special section on the Supreme Court, editors Hess and Arbetman examine how social studies educators can broaden and deepen the ways that they teach about the highest court in the land. Supreme Court still holds a position of dignity, decorum, and authority in the minds of the American people. How has this Court differed from those of earlier years? Using Moot Courts in the Classroom Kathy Bell Abstract legal principles become real and engaging when students participate in moot courts.

The Road to the Court Lee Arbetman When students from a small town in New York wanted their Christian student group to meet on school grounds, they had no idea that their case would make it all the way to the Supreme Court. Williams Obtaining copies of briefs or arguments of the Supreme Court is relatively easy with the help of the Internet. Which Cases Should We Teach? Diana Hess and Anand Marri Teachers need to teach not just the well-known and well-regarded Supreme Court cases but also "live" cases, whose decisions are still controversial today.

Controversial Dimensions of U. Supreme Court Coverage Charles Bierbauer Cameras may not be allowed in the courtroom, but journalists covering the Supreme Court still have work to do, from following cases and reporting on decisions, to giving the public a glimpse into the minds of the justices. Teaching Brown v. Board of Education , which ruled against the segregation of schools, is one of the most widely taught Supreme Court cases today.

Book Review. Media Literacy Skills: Interpreting Tragedy Renee Hobbs With the onslaught of media coverage about terrorism and war, students must learn to question, analyze, and think critically about the values and perspectives behind media messages. Singleton Far from advancing a single perspective about recent events, teachers need to encourage discussion and debate in the classroom. In War, Is Law Silent? Frederick Risinger Internet sites exploring such subjects as the Taliban, U. Civil War in Afghanistan Gayle Mertz This lesson plan on the civil war in Afghanistan includes a current map of the region, a brief history of the country, and a description of the warring factions.

Since then, the Red Cross has motivated youth to serve the community and beyond. War Crimes: An End in Sight? Joanne M. Dufour Will all crimes of war one day be investigated and punished in an international court of law? The author presents background information on the significant war trials of the twentieth century and the development of the idea of an International Criminal Court.

New Debates on Federalism John Paul Ryan The debate over the distribution of power between the federal government and the states continues over such issues as education, environmental policy, and religious freedom. Hahn A recent survey indicates how U. A social studies teacher chronicles the events as they happened in her own neighborhood in lower Manhattan. Berson and Michael J. Berson In the wake of tragedy, how can we help our students make sense of events, feel safe and protected, and even learn from the experience?

The author answers questions about the Muslim faith, community, and beliefs. Williams The year was a significant one for the Supreme Court. Many decisions affected education and children—from tobacco advertising to religion in the schools. Surfing the Web Teaching Economics and the Globalization Debate on the World Wide Web Frederick Risinger A listing and description of the best websites related to economics education, globalism, world trade, and international economics. Economists in the School Angela Breidenstein, Richard Butler, and Nipoli Kamdar Economic literacy is crucial, but far too often it is not adequately addressed in school curricula.

A school-university program in San Antonio, Texas, proves that students of all ages can enjoy learning basic economic concepts. Marine Corps enlisted Navajos to send and receive codes in their native language. These Navajo code talkers provided an essential line of radio communication that was versatile, secure, and error-free. Huerta and Leslie A. Flemmer Oral histories can be useful tools for students to learn about complex social issues.

This oral history model, detailing the lives of three Latin American women, shows how Latinas confronted ethnic, gender, and religious discrimination. Barton Elementary teachers can use historical photographs in the classroom to engage young students in authentic historical inquiry. Gardner and John Chambers By applying conflict resolution strategies to such events as the Mexican-American War, students grapple with difficult historical disputes, learn mediation and negotiation skills, and gain a deeper understanding of the costs, complexities, and consequences of conflict. Frederick Risinger Historical resources can make a social studies classroom come alive.

Here are some comprehensive and useful websites for history teachers at all grade levels. Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell Michael J. Cruz The seventy-fifth anniversary of the Buck v. Book Review Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts by Sam Wineburg Elizabeth Yeager Historical thinking, the author tells us, is a stimulating, engaging process but requires skills that do not come to us automatically.

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Students need to learn about other genocides, such as those that occurred in Armenia, Rwanda, and Bosnia, to understand that the Holocaust was not a mere aberration of history. Adler addresses the critique. Lapham National History Day is a unique opportunity for middle and high school students to engage in high-level history projects and share their talents. Miller, Jr.

Through partnerships with Peace Corps volunteers, students at Corcoran High School and adjacent Roberts Elementary School in Syracuse, New York, have helped build six primary schools, a village well, two maternity wards, a medicinal herb garden, a community health center, and a school for the blind, among other projects, in various nations around the world.

This article explains how your school can become involved in this form of service-learning. Woodson Book Awards These annual awards honor books that deal with subjects relating to U. Graphic Representations as Tools for Decision Making Judith Howard The ability to make good decisions is a fundamental skill needed by citizens of a democracy.

The tools described here can help students sharpen their analytical and decision-making skills though graphic representation of the weight or force of alternative choices and their possible consequences. Sherry L. Dateline Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia Toni Fuss Kirkwood Three young adults look backward to reflect on what they gained from a cross-cultural exchange between Russian and American high schools students in Cummins and Anna K.

Cummins Arthur R. History Matters: The U. Survey Course on the Web Kelly Schrum and Roy Rosenzweig Teachers do not always have the time to screen Internet information for its quality or relevancy. The History Matters website serves as a gateway to more than four hundred prescreened, quality websites, while also offering a variety of other activities and services. Now the site has grown into a useful resource for teachers nationwide. Karran, Michael J. Berson, and Cheryl L. Mason The Internet has not lived up to the expectations of many educators, who envisioned it as the answer to their collaborative tele-learning needs.

Enter Internet2, a broadband, fiber-optic network able to provide the quality-of-service guarantees necessary for tele-education. Frederick Risinger The author encourages social studies teachers to make use of the Internet as a resource not only for social studies-related sites, but for useful and fun teaching tools as well. Hoping to provide a model for change, this article examines the widespread use of charts and graphs in Japanese elementary textbooks.

Bureau of the Census has begun to publish the results of the Census of Here is some early information about population totals. Rye, Donna D. Strong, and Peter A. Rubba Global warming and ozone layer depletion—two different problems that require public understanding to arrive at solutions—exemplify the kind of meaningful issues that await when social studies teachers bring Science-Technology-Society STS issues into the classroom. The new attention to environmental education is one path toward achieving sustainable development in Myanmar.

Hahn Based on a ten-year study of citizenship education in five countries, the author posits that the best way to encourage civic engagement in youth is to encourage the open and civil discussion of controversial issues in the classroom. Ford to President Richard M. This article features one of the many letters the president received about whom he should nominate for vice president. Haas and Margaret A. Laughlin Elementary teachers want to provide meaningful social studies instruction, but may be thwarted by their perception that social studies is not viewed as an important content area in elementary schools.

This is one of many observations in this profile of NCSS members who teach at the elementary level. When the economy begins to serve true human needs, the schools will produce responsible and engaged human beings. Our schools have a vital role to play in this process. Prospects for the Electoral College after Election Jennifer Truran Rothwell For the first time in more than a century, the United States experienced a presidential election in which the popular and electoral college votes diverged.

Should the electoral college be abolished, reformed, or kept as it is? There is no lack of opinions on this thorny subject. Kennedy to energetically support its goals. Stevens Even as the Western frontier was disappearing in the s, Eastern illustrator Frederic Remington was conjuring up an image of it that found wide popularity among the urban public. The unit includes a simulation on the stock market crash of , a letter-writing activity based on study of letters real children wrote to Mrs.

Roosevelt, and the creation and performance of historical scenarios involving Depression-era characters. Libresco When a student from El Salvador told how he had once seen his fourth grade teacher shot in front of him, attitudes toward immigration among his American classmates began to take on more shades of gray. So far, educators have not been taking full advantage of the vast resources of this government agency.

Teachers looking for a legal case study might well choose this act to exmplify how science and politics may collide. Bioethics Cases and Issues: Enrichment for Social Science, Humanities, and Science Courses Ruth Levy Guyer, Mary Lou Dillon, Linda Anderson, and Lola Szobota Case studies in bioethics can enrich high school classes across the curriculum and help prepare students for the complex questions and dilemmas that new medical technologies pose for society.

Privacy, Individual Liberty, and the Public Interest John Paul Ryan Privacy is not an absolute value, but one that must be balanced against other needs of society. This article reports on a discussion in cyberspace among six scholars whose disciplines relate to questions of privacy. Three case studies provide the basis for thinking about this vital issue. Frederick Risinger Teaching about controversial issues should not be confined to U. Victory at Home and Abroad: The Tuskegee Airmen Research Project and Seminar John Adelmann Sometimes it is difficult to get students to put pen to paper, but these students were so enthusiastic about their project on the Tuskegee Airmen that they wrote and published a book.

Thoughts on Wise Practice in the Teaching of Social Studies Elizabeth Anne Yeager Much has been written to describe bad teaching practices, but we need to do more to understand the characteristics of good ones. Black The techniques described here make it easier to teach about foreign places and cultures. Slekar Rap lyrics were the starting point for a project that involved these students in the cause of urban renewal. Wilson and Terry Fogg A student-centered approach and imaginative class activities characterize the constructivist-influenced teaching described in this article.

Cox and Jill H. Barrow Museums are much more than destinations for an annual field trip, and it is important to learn how to use them better. Foster and John D. Writing about Immigration: Authentic Assessment for U. History Students Patricia G. Avery, Dana Carmichael-Tanaka, Jennifer Kunze, and Nonie Petersen Kouneski This unit made many students more aware of the experiences of their immigrant peers—and, looking back, of their own family histories. Bush organize their campaigns. The E-Citizen John K. Lee The Internet has already begun to change the opportunities citizens have to participate in politics.

Supreme Court Trends Charles F. Williams Many decisions made by the Supreme Court last year had majorities—a number that politicians in this election year view with keen interest. Raskin, reviewed by Jennifer Brandsberg-Engelmann At a time when schools are testing grounds for constitutional tenets, this collection of cases identifies landmark decisions that have affected public school students.

Presidential Elections in the Age of Television Jennifer Truran Rothwell Television, as both news medium and commercial venture, has exerted a profound influence on American elections since its entry into the political arena in the late s. Presidential Character in Election James J. Lopach and Jean A.

What makes up the "character" of a candidate for the highest office in the land? Selecting Presidential Nominees: The Evolution of the Current System and Prospects for Reform Scott Piroth Critics argue that the process by which we choose our presidents is too long, too costly, and too divisive—making it hard for presidents to govern.

How did we get to the current system? And what might improve it? Teaching with Documents Documents Related to the Disputed General Election of Wynell Schamel, Lee Ann Potter, and Katherine Snodgrass The presidential contest between Tilden and Hayes in put the electoral college system to the test and was only resolved by a political compromise that brought an end to Reconstruction.

Developing Strong Voters through Democratic Deliberation Diana Hess The careful deliberation of political issues in the classroom can help form citizens with a strong commitment to voting. Cravath and Thomas M. McGowan The model for Kids Voting USA, a civics education program that involves students in voting alongside their parents at the polls, originated with a school curriculum developed in Costa Rica. Bennett Two Internet-based projects help young students become engaged in the presidential election.

Surfing the Net Democracy. Frederick Risinger Is the foundation of U. And, if so, is it good for democracy? Rebecca Kingsley and Jamin B. Raskin The struggle of D. Ray Heitzman Although students often like political cartoons, many have trouble understanding them. The author proposes a step-by-step approach to help students develop the analytical skills needed to interpret cartoons. Yang The rationale for campaign finance reform—preventing corruption or even the appearance of corruption in the electoral process—must be balanced against the constitutional rights protected by the First Amendment.

Fogel and Robert L. Popular treatments of the law can, at best, encapsulate important legal issues; at worst, they still may offer a valuable exercise in critical thinking. Mixing It Up: A Multilevel Book Room and Flexible Literature Circles Andi Stix When New York City recently mandated that middle school students should read 25 books a year, social studies teachers at one school responded by creating a multilevel book room that has proved both useful and popular with students.

Michael deCourcy Hinds American teenagers are the most violent when compared with their counterparts in other developed nations. This article looks at three possible causes of youth violence and the remedies proposed to solve them. Taylor and Susan M. Larson Public policy mandates that special education students be mainstreamed into regular classes. Teachers at all levels—but especially where mainstreaming most commonly occurs—need better preparation for helping these students to succeed academically. Haas The reviewer finds this book, by M.

Learning and Teaching with Interactive Simulations John Zola and Andri Ioannidou Building interactive simulations of past events is not just for the computer-savvy, but can enrich the historical understanding of all students. Amy Wallace: Information Age Teacher Howard Mehlinger A retiring sixth grade teacher reflects on the profound changes technology made in her teaching as she says goodbye to the classroom in the year Frederick Risinger In addition to having excellent home pages, some schools are doing an outstanding job of connecting their students to the best of the Web.

Diminishing the Complexity and Horror of the Holocaust: Using Simulations in an Attempt to Convey Historical Experiences Samuel Totten Using simulations to teach about the Holocaust may leave students with only a thin grasp of both its complex causes and its horrific effects.

Why not let the victims and survivors speak for themselves? Amamoo The right to vote was hard won, but many citizens do not use it. Could more referendums and ballot initiatives reinvigorate our democracy? This, coupled with the physical insularity of its nations and territories, makes it difficult to define common interests and achieve common goals. Cruz This lesson asks students to make mental maps of the Caribbean as a starting point for developing their understanding of the physical and cultural geography of the region. Cuba: Background to a Revolution Alejandro de la Fuente Despite forty years of Soviet-style socialism, the fate of Cuba—both its future promise and the formidable obstacles facing it—remains linked with that of the surrounding island nations.

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Resources for Teaching about the Caribbean Toni Fuss Kirkwood This article highlights some of the excellent resources and organizations that can aid educators in teaching about the Caribbean. Guest Editor: Jean M. West The success of public health efforts against yellow fever and malaria may be the most lasting benefit of the U. Pungello Immigrant children in the classroom pose both challenge and opportunity for teachers. History by James A. Percoco Murry R. Nelson This book conveys the excitement one teacher experiences in taking his students beyond the textbook and the classroom in pursuit of historical truth.

Loewen George T. Swain Loewen takes pen in hand to correct more errors in U. But the involvement of teachers in considering the large questions about the social studies is vital to our role in training future citizens. Barber The idea of the common good that underlies our democracy is under challenge from globalization and the forces that flow from it.

These include the privatization of public power, the commercialization of what is privatized, and the infantilization of citizens—viewed solely in their role as consumers—around the world. Mason The role of the artist as social critic is examined in an interview with filmmaker Tim Robbins that centers on his new film about a WPA theater production cancelled presumably on political grounds late in the New Deal era.

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Preface: Footsteps of a New Millennium H. Michael Hartoonian and Richard Van Scotter The essays presented here examine how our contemporary conditions are connected to the past, and pose questions about what we must do to achieve a more sane and just society in the future. Students at the Millennium John Driscoll This is an unsettled time in which to be coming of age; helping students to obtain clarity of vision about our republic and what constitutes the role of citizen is the best we can offer as social studies teachers.

The Changing Face of Knowledge Simon Hooper and Brad Hokanson How we can make the most intelligent use of the computer technology becoming ubiquitous in our schools depends on our understanding of how learning occurs and what current research teaches us. Navigating a New Information Landscape Charlie Fitzpatrick The new information landscape presents a dual challenge to educators: students must be taught the traditional skills needed to evaluate information critically, while teachers must become more comfortable with the computer and Internet as tools of learning.

Michael Hartoonian and Richard Van Scotter The current tension between democracy and capitalism can best be resolved if we understand the individual not merely as "economic man," and "wealth" not primarily as the accretion of material objects. Roundtable Where have we come from and where are we going? The various perspectives about major issues for the next century offered here are drawn from both older and younger Americans. Changing Family Forms M. Therese Seibert and Marion C. Willetts While family forms have changed greatly over the past century, institutional and cultural adjustments to these changes have been slower in coming—making family issues the subject of an intense debate that shows no signs of flagging as we enter the new millennium.

Cogan, David Grossman, and Mei-hui Lei If global forces are to increasingly shape the world, then what kind of citizen is needed to function in global society? This article views citizenship as having four dimensions—personal, social, spatial, and temporal and discusses ways for teaching the concept of multidimensional citizenship.

Civic Organizing and the Renewal of Public Education Tony Massengale and Peg Michels Our major institutions need to offer more support to those who seek to practice good citizenship. Williams This article looks at the issue of tax-funded school voucher programs through the prism of the constitutional question it raises involving the "wall of separation" between church and state. Mulling Over the Millennium.

Is the end of the millennium and the 20th century a "defining moment" in history? What can we learn from looking backward and forward in time? The Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii. The U. Most campaign polling firms are as invisible to the public as the caterer at an election victory party; how not to swallow bad findings is an important skill of citizenship learning.

The Keys to Election The prediction model outlined here is based on thirteen key questions stated as propositions favoring the reelection of the incumbent party. The outcome of the presidential election may hinge on whether there is a serious contest for the Democratic Party nomination.

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  4. This study of civic education across national boundaries is uncovering many commonalities, including a common core of content, a widely perceived gap between democratic goals and societal realities, and a concern everywhere about diversity and what direction to take in teaching about it. The Turn of the Millennium. As the new millennium dawns, Americans might do well to temper the current spirit of triumphalism with a hard look at our failure to correct serious inequities within or own society or to honestly examine the implications of our actions on the world stage.

    Looking at the 21 decennial censuses taken from to the upcoming Census can help students understand the fundamental importance of the U. Census Trends and Issues in Counting the People. The importance of obtaining a complete count of the population—and the barriers to doing so—are emphasized in this article on Census Census and Service Learning. Students can learn much about our democracy and their own communities by volunteering to help with Census The trial jury, a venerable institution of democracy and citizen participation, is nevertheless not without its controversies.

    This article looks at problems and progress in the U. Stop Misusing Tests to Evaluate Teachers. The Executive Director of Fairtest points out the difference between holding teachers responsible and scapegoating them for test scores that are beyond their control. As educational reform forces a new look at social studies testing, here are some important guidelines for planning assessments.

    Imaginative class assignments can make assessment a better experience for both teachers and students. Opening Assessment to our Students. Evaluating Students in a Course on Social Advocacy. Observation as an Assessment Tool. Although the risk of subjectivity is inherent in authentic assessment, there are sound ways of reducing it. In a situation where "what gets tested is what gets taught," social studies educators in Michigan faced the challenge of developing high-quality assessments tied to state standards.

    This major consortium effort involving 23 states seeks to develop assessments that reflect high-level thinking processes. A state website can be an excellent means of disseminating information about tests and honing the assessment skills of teachers. Authentic Assessment and Instruction. If students develop their own portfolios in teacher education programs, they are more likely to practice portfolio assessment when they become teachers.

    Here are some answers to questions often asked about the certification of social studies teachers by NBPTS. A Quest for Knowledge. Teachers who participate in the Internet-based Quests of Dan Buettner show how the right assessment practices help convert student enthusiasm into an understanding of other cultures. Supreme Court Trends. This regular column reviews key decisions of the last Supreme Court term, and previews the next one, with suggestions for stimulating class activities. Stevens and Jared A. Fogel The move from family farm to coal camp wrought dramatic—and sometimes disastrous—changes in the lives of people in Appalachia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    Elementary Teaching Ideas "I thought the world was flat, like the map showed it": Building Geographic Understanding with Elementary Students Gwendolyn Thompson Building a model of the globe helps children to better understand many geographic concepts and can provide a reference point for continued learning throughout the year. Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland Jennifer Truran Rothwell Once the bane of travellers, the mountain passes of Switzerland were opened to modern tourism through a series of engineering feats specifically aimed to carry tourists ever higher into the Alps.

    Special Section Mountains: A Global Resource This special section examines the critical importance of mountains to the people who inhabit them and to the world at large. The curriculum presented here supports "The Mountain Agenda"—an international initiative designed to raise public awareness about mountain ecosystems—and results from a collaboration between The Mountain Institute and National Council for the Social Studies.

    Multiculturalism vs. Globalism Nelly Ukpokodu Although multiculturalism and globalism share significant purposes in the social studies curriculum, teaching either concept well requires drawing some important distinctions between them. Looking at the Law The Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology John Paul Ryan and Benjamin Hron The era of genetic engineering is upon us and there is no avoiding the legal issues it poses, many of which constitute uncharted ground for ethicists no less than biologists.

    This article offers an assessment of the implications of recent scientific advances, as well as related teaching activities Hilary Glazer and Hannah Leiterman , a discussions of bioethics and the law Elizabeth Yang and an expression of concern about some potential pitfalls of biotechnology Ami S. Teaching with Documents The Census of Manufactures Lee Ann Potter and Wynell Schamel The movement of young women from farm life to textile mill workers reflected the changing fortunes of New England farmers and merchants as the Napoleonic Wars pulled the young American nation into their wake.

    Women Reformers in the Progressive Era Judith McDonough The liberal spirit of the Progressive Era beckoned women—both college graduates and members of the working class—to carve out their own places in the public world outside the home. Teaching with Documents The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks Stacey Bredhoff, Wynell Schamel, and Lee Ann Potter The day Montgomery bus boycott that followed the arrest of Rosa Parks for refusing to relinquish her seat on a city bus to a white passenger was a crucial event in mobilizing national and worldwide support for the civil rights movement.

    Critical Literature for the Social Studies: Challenges and Opportunities for the Elementary Classroom Neil Houser Getting the "feel" of a situation through reflecting on literature that addresses difficult social and cultural issues can help children to become more critical of self and society and to develop greater empathy for others. Stange and Susan L. Wyant The pioneer experience on the American prairie offers a rich field for integrating the language arts with various disciplines within the social studies.

    How Newspapers Framed the U. History Standards Debate Patricia G. Avery and Theresa Johnson The release of the National Standards for United States History sparked a controversy that went far beyond their merit as curriculum guidelines to questions about the nature of the American past; but the voices heard in this debate were limited, and scarcely included classroom teachers and their students. Woodson Book Awards These annual awards honor books with themes dealing with U. Sansone Developing a political identity is not only an important goal of civics education, but may provide the impetus for students to learn what it really means to be an informed citizen.

    Fernekes The idea that children need specific rights guarantees, first proposed by 19th century social reformers, was codified in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in Michael Hartoonian The current movement toward the privatization of education allows us to know the price of schooling. But how much do we value the common good, and its corollary, the common school? Antoinette Kranning and Lee Ehman A project called "Mystery from History" brings together fifth grade students and university pre-service teachers via e-mail exchanges throughout a semester. Content-Rich Commercial Websites in the Social Studies Aaron Willis The growing number of fee-based Internet resources for the social studies includes websites devoted to history, current events, primary sources, and virtual fieldtrips.

    Berson, and Elizabeth Ralston Schools and teachers serve as a critical line of defense in the protection of children from maltreatment, and must consider how to safeguard students from offensive sexual materials and situations as they undertake assignments on the Internet. Software Reviews History Uninspired? Fairey, Clifford T. Bennett, and John Lee. History Clifford T. Bennett, J. Richelle Joe, and Ken Watson. Kirman There is a world of classroom uses for the information gathered by earth resources satellites such as Landsat and Radarsat.

    Children in the upper elementary grades are capable of making use of various kinds of images produced by remote sensing. Special Section: Preservation and Change Sustainable Development in Costa Rica: An Approach to the Geography Curriculum Douglas Heffington and Judith Mimbs The tools of geography can help as people in developing nations seek to improve their livelihoods in ways that preserve the environment. But the process is challenging, as shown in this study of the Bribri, an indigenous people who live on a reserve in the Talamanca Mountains of southeastern Costa Rica.

    The Monteverde Community—A Whole Greater than Its Parts Quint Newcomer The feeling of community so essential to achieving sustainable development is very much evident in this mountain town. Its surrounding forest preserves, with their vast biodiversity, have become a magnet for nature tourists. Ecostudents: The New Wave of Students Abroad Sandra Woy-Hazelton As universities and other organizations have begun offering programs of environmental study in nations throughout the world, the profile of the student abroad has changed to include the new ecostudents.

    Diem The Internet offers a vast pool of resources on development issues worldwide. Here are some excellent websites for students to begin research on Central America and Mexico. Jones The development of the maquiladora corridor along the Texas-Mexico border in recent decades has been accompanied by an increase in pollution and resultant health problems in twin cities along the Rio Grande.

    Plotting and Analyzing: Graphing Calculators for Social Inquiry Joe Garofalo, Clifford Bennett and Cheryl Mason More commonly used in math classes, graphing calculators have capabilities for data plotting and analysis that can enhance student understanding in many areas of the social studies. Teaching Presidential Impeachment Jean A. Luckowsi and James J. Lopach An issues-centered approach to impeachment can help students to both appreciate the wisdom of our constitutional framework and understand why such strong differences over how to interpret the Constitution emerged in the recent debate over impeaching President Clinton.

    Looking at the Law Affirmative Action: Contentious Ideas and Controversial Practices John Michael Eden and John Paul Ryan Nine scholars meet in cyberspace to talk about affirmative action in terms of its original intent to counter past racism and "level the playing field" in American society, and the thinking behind recent court decisions and statewide voter intiatives that challenge its practice.

    Yet while the causes of genocide are complex and varying, the effects on victims are the same, and demand that we search for better remedies against this recurrent human tragedy. Book Reviews We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda by Philip Gourevitch Samuel Totten This book takes a critical look at the genocide in Rwanda and concludes that responsibility for it—though lying chiefly with its perpetrators—also extends to the actions of other nations and the inaction of the international community as a whole.

    Point of View The Value of Teaching Values Jeff Passe Teaching values to school children is not a discrete activity, but involves choices made at every step in the process of education. Its ultimate goal should be to foster the open discussion that prepares students for their rights and responsibilities as citizens of a democracy. The one person who can most make a difference is a caring adult—you, the teacher. Kent The presentation of our national past as a "spectacular, flag-waving saga" is incomplete, less than honest, and impossible to maintain in the face of modern media.

    Children are more likely to benefit from a realistic understanding of the people and events that have shaped our nation. The Schoolwide Symposium: A Model for Learning Walt Cottingham The energizing effect of a week-long symposium on Vietnam in a small high school in North Carolina set the precedent for an annual school event eagerly anticipated by students, teachers, and the local community.

    Teaching Multicultural Social Studies in an Era of Political Eclipse Alan Singer Student concerns about social justice often lead to placing multicultural issues at the center of the social studies curriculum. Teaching multicultural education through an inquiry-based approach makes for a natural combination of method and purpose. But what could "kindness" possibly mean given the circumstances? Elementary Education Elementary Students Learn about Native Americans: the Development of Knowledge and Empathy Jere Brophy Two recent studies suggest that, while most elementary students progress beyond the cartoon stereotypes of Native Americans that young children absorb from the media, their knowledge of and empathy for Native Americans dwindles when the curriculum shifts to the westward expansion of the United States in fifth grade.

    Rains and Karen Gayton Swisher The narrow teaching about Native Americans typified by the elementary "Indian unit" is more hindrance than help in comprehending the diversity that exists among indigenous peoples, and the unique position of Indian tribes or nations within the federal government system. Resources for Teaching about American Indians Karen Harvey There are many good resources for teaching about American Indians with accuracy and respect.

    This article offers a sampling of what is available in several media. Miller With the advent of the Internet, American Indian nations now have official tribal websites. This list will help readers to explore the diversity of Native American cultures. Point of View Native Americans as Mascots Sharon Pray Muir The lesson presented here uses role reversal to help students consider the issue of how it might feel to belong to a group that was portrayed as a sports mascot.

    This lesson plan examines how individuals may affect the making of foreign policy based on human rights concerns. Gail Hickey This special issue of Social Education focuses on schools as the primary gateway for absorbing newcomers into United States society, and explores new ideas for empowering immigrants that challenge the traditional model of assimilation. Social studies professionals have a vital role to play in making the largest ethnic transformation in our history a success. Cowart, Ron W. Wilhelm, and Ronald E. Cowart In a community program in Dallas, Asian American youths from several countries share their differing heritages as well as their common experiences in adjusting to mainstream American society.

    Using Media Literacy to Explore Stereotypes of Mexican Immigrants Lucila Vargas and Bruce dePyssler The current media portrayal of Mexican immigrants and native-born Latinos differs little from the historical pattern of negative coverage. Media literacy tools can help students deconstruct the stereotypes and other false images prevalent in general-market media. Singer and Theodora Harbour-Ridley Teaching about immigration is an inclusive effort that involves pre-schoolers and elementary students, teachers and parents, at the Morris L.

    Connor Immigration lends itself well to teaching history thematically. Using this approach, students can observe how the same issues have arisen time after time as the nation struggled to define its immigration policy—and itself. This article reviews some of the approaches to bilingual education now being used to help these children succeed academically. This article looks at one such program for the social studies. Knowing more about the cultural backgrounds of immigrant students can help teachers to avoid cultural misunderstandings that detract from learning. Will the school curriculum be inclusive of the many peoples who have formed this nation or a means of reasserting the centrality of the Anglo-Celtic past?

    Surfing the Web Teaching about Immigration Frederick Risinger A number of good websites on immigration can help stimulate classroom discussion. This controversial topic can also be a good way to introduce students to website bias. Teaching with Documents Declaration of Intention and Petition for Naturalization Lee Ann Potter and Wynell Schamel The legal requirements for becoming a United States citizen have changed little since the founding of the nation, although the paperwork has been streamlined.

    This article uses documents submitted by Greta Garbo and one Archibald Leach to explain the process of naturalization. Re-Exploring Early America. This method provides an alternative means of producing planar Pt II complexes, which can be difficult to synthesize by traditional solution processing, but are essential for molecular stacking in electroluminescent devices.

    This work provides a rational basis for the design of lipid—polymer amphiphiles for optimized lymphoid targeting. Oxidizing hydride : The incorporation of hydride species into reduced ceria causes oxidation of the oxide. Accompanying changes in the electronic structure of the oxide are investigated, as well as the thermal stability of the hydride species.

    The materials also enable the clean dehydrogenation of borazane. NNO worries : The synthesis and comprehensive characterisation of two rhodium I complexes of nitrous oxide are reported. These normally elusive adducts are stable in the solid state and persist in solution at ambient temperature. The obtained hybrid supercapacitor delivers a high energy density of Modus operandi : Combined operando spectroscopy provided new insight into the mode of operation of widely used SnO 2 gas sensors.

    The relation of the sensor response to the number of surface oxygen vacancies and the nature of the adsorbates was determined. These findings may be of direct relevance for other metal oxide gas sensors as well, and underline the importance of a detailed spectroscopic analysis under working conditions. Quat a wonderful world! It features a 3D network composed of a 1D chains composed of Bi 2 O 8 dimers that are further bridged by Ge 2 O 7 dimers, that confines the BiO 5 and GeO 4 units to be assembled in a favorable alignment fashion and displays quite a large SHG efficiency of about The Au I formate in turn loses CO 2 at room temperature upon application of vacuum and this process can be expedited at lower temperatures by using NHC.

    The unusually long decay is associated with the significantly distorted geometry. This permits monitoring reactions of scarce or expensive reagents and opens up the potential for future automated synthetic discovery platforms. High pressure is applied to investigate the optical response and structure evolution of a 2D double halide perovskite. The bidentate structure of the NHC ligand was shown to be critical both for the stability and the reactivity of the Rh I complex. Have your cake and eat it too : The inherent quantitative nature of NMR spectroscopy is typically sacrificed to achieve sensitivity.

    A series of reversible chain transfer agents carrying either cyclopentene or cyclohexene rings were employed in catalytic living ring opening metathesis polymerisation ROMP. The cyclopentene derivatives show significantly higher reaction rates than the corresponding cyclohexene derivatives, resulting in lower molecular weight dispersities and better control of the molecular weight. More O 2 release : Hypoxia significantly limits the outcome of cancer radiotherapy. This new method is expected to serve as a useful tool in the discovery of new therapeutics and agrochemicals.

    Operando spectroscopic characterization of the catalyst establishes that the active species during electrolysis are transient small Cu nanoparticles. The restructuration of metal sites is reversible. Their easy preparation, high stability against pH changes and the presence of divalent metal ions, and high homogeneity make them an efficient tool for the investigation of a wide range of molecular systems including natural products, proteins, and RNA. The reversible association of zerovalent metal moieties offer a role of sandwich complexes as a metal carrier.

    This structural insight will aid in the characterization of the photophysical properties of this class of emitters. Bimetallic catalysis : Using atomic layer modification of CuO by ZnO, in situ reduced CuZn nanowires are prepared as selective catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction to ethanol. Russell in his Author Profile. My favorite chemical effects are kinetic isotope effects. The negative charge localization at the central core has been identified by theoretical calculations and supported by NMR spectroscopic results.

    Out of the ordinary : Trichobrasilenol was identified as an unusual sesquiterpene alcohol made by a sesquiterpene cyclase from Trichoderma spp. The mechanism of product formation was studied by using isotopically labelled substrates, with a special emphasis on a complex rearrangement step that leads to the extrusion of a hydroxymethyl group from an internal methylene group of FPP.

    The zinc ion has strong selective adsorption on the acyl group of polyacrylamide and can be transferred along the polymer chains, leading to the homogeneous zinc distribution. Li intercalation activated the inert pristine IrSe 2 by bringing about high porosities and abundant Se vacancies for efficient hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. The interactions among the three components two macrocycles and one axle were shown to not only affect the relative positions of the macrocycles along the axles with different spacer lengths, but also cause a synchronized motion of the two macrocycles when adding stimuli.

    Thermolysis under vacuum results in the decomposition of the hydroxide salt and quantitative liberation of the free phosphazene base. This process was used to synthesize the Schwesinger base on a larger scale. Sequential dehydrogenations can transform cyclohexane into benzene. DFT calculations and kinetic isotope effects support the proposed mechanism. Ring assembly : An effective diastereoselective spiroketalization has been realized for a broad range of aldehydes and proceeds in the presence of a copper catalyst.

    Size matters : Coordination isomerism was exploited for the first time to control the morphology of a supramolecular polymer. Distinct reactivities are found for selenoneine and ergothioneine, showing that the two compounds can fill distinct functional niches. High five! Structural properties of the highly crystalline COF were investigated. The lack of a belt sulfur may prove beneficial for labelling this position for mechanistic studies of nitrogenases.

    Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations give further insight into the underlying reaction mechanisms. The approach allows to diagnose zinc—bromine flow batteries. Shifty business : Multicolor emissive materials consisting of a single luminophore, a Lewis acid, and their complex were developed. The colors in both the solution and solid states can be tuned by shifting the equilibrium between the single luminophore, the Lewis acid, and its complex.

    The first example of highly enantioselective intramolecular dicarbofunctionalization of unactivated alkenes with alkyl, aryl, or alkenylboronic acids is reported. The synthesis of a pair of enantiomers was achieved by a change in the order of the steps in the reaction sequence. Hydrolysis of UTL then releases the pcr layer and regenerates the Ge source. This strategy is effective for a wide range of hetero aryl bromides under mild conditions.

    The utility of this protocol is showcased in the construction of important building blocks in medicinal chemistry, such as aryldifluoromethyl and diarylmethane motifs. Chiral phosphoric acids can be constructed into metal—organic frameworks MOFs by sterically preventing them from coordination. The reversible, photoswitchable disassembly and reassembly of coacervate microdroplets, under UV and blue light, respectively, is exploited to trigger the mixing and trafficking of oligonucleotides in binary populations of the droplets. The strength of the approach is demonstrated by the synthesis of mono, binary, and ternary CTM composites with tunable and controlled elemental composition.

    Spectroscopic investigation sheds light on the role of water coordination, which is responsible for this process. Adjusting nature : Artificial enzymes catalyze reactions that are rarely, if ever, performed by natural enzymes. The current signature also reflects the pH of the environment. Shell Oil Co. Fluorescence titration experiments demonstrate the favourable solvatochromic properties of the inhibitor upon binding the kinase.

    Microscopy and flow cytometry experiments demonstrate that the fluorescence intensity of the inhibitor correlates with LCK concentration. Skipping bonds! This methodology has a broad functional group tolerance using easily accessible starting materials under mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic investigations suggest an intermediate Rh III —allyl species that is coupled with an electrophilic amidation reagent.

    Good as gold : The high oxidation potential between Au I and Au III means that gold redox catalysis typically requires stoichiometric amounts of a strong oxidant. Amines on the cheap : In comparison to the hydroamination reaction, hydroaminomethylation, the addition of a hydrogen and a methyleneamino unit across an olefin, has received significantly less attention. The inhibition strength of inhibitors can be regulated by introducing phosphorylated peptides that can be activated by the addition of a phosphatase.

    The latter can be reinstated by electrochemical reduction. This function constitutes a unique tool to probe the conformation of organic materials and is expected to significantly improve the determination of crystal structures for powders. Playing with fire : A flame reaction is used to prepare SmCo—oxide particles that are further reduced to form strongly ferromagnetic Sm x Co y particles. A photocatalytic CO 2 reduction reaction CRR in aqueous solution is a promising reaction route, while severe H 2 generation HER greatly limits its selectivity and activity. The reaction mechanisms uncovered by experiment and computation are most relevant to the combustion and astrochemical regimes.

    There are no known mechanisms for this phenomenon, and a simplified phenomenological model suggests that the contribution of quantum mechanical processes should be revisited. Herein, the successful preparation of graphene quantum dots GQDs using black liquor as a precursor is reported. The cell adhesion can be modulated dynamically by applying a negative and positive potential to surfaces functionalized with specific molecular structures. This process alters cell morphology and ultimately defines the behavior and fate of the cells.

    This tool allows the investigation of the mechanisms that control the dynamics of cellular compartmentalization in space and time. This property is related to strong lipid phosphate headgroup binding and the lack of chloride uniport activity. This relative insusceptibility to inhibition by amides is likely to be more responsible for the catalytic activity than the strength of the acidity. In this approach apoptotic cell death is induced through lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)
    Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2) Journal of Robin Leigh (Wyoming Trilogy Book 2)

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