- British Asian Fiction: Twenty-first Century Voices.
- Nuclear magnetic resonance. Electronic book .: A review of the literature published between June 2003 and May 2004, Volume 34.
- Comparative Criminal Law - Oxford Handbooks.
- Alan Norrie.
A chronological, geographical, or topical focus is developed in consultation with a faculty advisor. AP credit: AP credits may not be used to satisfy requirements of the minor.
Four of the five courses must be taken in-residence at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, or must count as in-residence credit i. A minimum of four courses and 12 credits selected in consultation with a history faculty advisor, selected from the list below. Submit Site Search Search. Undergraduate Graduate Transfer International.
Integrative Theories, Integrating Criminologies - Critical Criminology
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History of Law and Policy Minor. Academics Majors and Minors [X] close. Department Website. We doubt that all hate is bad and we insist that the fighting of hate is in need of critical scrutiny.
Our aim was to extend the scholarly gaze to include not just hate, but also the fighting of hate. That is, to initiate a critical exploration and discussion of the basic assumptions, ideals, and agendas behind the modern combating of hate: What are the normative presuppositions, the ideological roots, the promises, the limits, and — not least — the blind spots of the modern war on hate?
- Revision of the Palearctic Chaetocnema Species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).
- Hanna-Barberas Boo Boo and the V.I.V..
- Ayn Rands Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist;
- Introduction to critical criminology: View as single page!
- Retributive Theory of Punishment: A Critical Analysis.
- Oxidative Stress and Neuroprotection (Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa).
- Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics.
When and why did it become legitimate to fight hatred? What do we mean when we frame an act or expression as hateful? And what is at stake in the awkward relationship between hate and liberal democracy? To that end, the book opens four areas exploration. Hate was not always considered an evil to be fought, and hate and democracy was not always at odds with each other. In the book, classicist David Konstan, explains how in ancient democratic Athens and in republican Rome, certain forms of hate were considered socially appropriate, associated with legitimate enmity rather than social pathology.
The emotion that was considered a driver of problematic social conflict was envy phthonos rather than hate misos. The classical understanding of envy might be interesting not just for the purposes of historical contrast, but also for our understanding, today, of crimes motivated by hate or prejudice. A closer consideration of envy, encourages us to take more seriously the feelings of unfairness, shame or humiliation that may be a factor in many hate crimes. This trajectory implies that racism — for better or for worse — still occur as the paradigmatic hatred, and this continuously structures the public understanding of hate as a particular kind of evil.
History of Law and Policy Minor
What do the people engaged in combating hate need to know about — well — hate? As much as possible, one might assume. How else to fight it? However, most scholarship on hate crime and hate speech seems largely uninterested in detailed conceptual reflections on hate. The rhetoric of hate may even be granted to be apt for securing media attention and for the making of political coalitions between otherwise disconnected actors and organizations.
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Consequently, some scholars advocate shifting the terminology and uses expressions such as defamatory speech or bias crime. Such rejections of hate as the appropriate term has served an important purpose, namely to draw attention to the structural embedding of hate speech and hate crime, hence their normality and systemic character. However, the general dismissal of the relevance of a more elaborate thinking about hate may in fact be too hasty.
Philosopher Thomas Brudholm revisits the writings of Plato and Aristotle, showing that there is a long tradition for thinking about certain forms of hatred as prejudice or as a pathological syndrome, but also that hatred has been and perhaps can be seen as a normal emotional response to perceived evil, responsive to reasons and amenable to restraint in so far as people who hate are not always or necessarily led or consumed by their hatred. Psychologist Niza Yanay analyses hatred as a deeply ambivalent and complex constellation of longing and rejection, disgust and desire, that works within and beneath the -isms and —phobias of interest for the combatting of hate.
Hence, a deeper understanding of the ambivalence of hate, and its intricate relation to love, is needed to sustain a sufficiently nuanced response to hate in liberal democracies. Finally, legal scholar Eric Heinze shows how hate emerges as a legal concept in the attempt to target forms of illegitimate, hostile attitudes that cannot be accommodated within the framework of anti-discrimination law. However, targeting such attitudes through speech regulations put the liberal democratic state at odds with its obligation to avoid viewpoint punitive measures.
Related Modern Histories of Crime and Punishment (Critical Perspectives on Crime and Law)
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