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Accessible by bus, train or river taxi and just over 1 mile from Pimlico Tube Station Victoria line , with Heathrow airport only 17 miles away. To book please contact Pestana Chelsea Bridge Hotel directly at events. Stay up to date with our technology updates, events, special offers, news, publications and training. Toggle navigation. Accordingly, the present invention is a method of embedding tooling control data within a mechanical fixture design to enable programmable logic control verification simulation.
The method includes the steps of constructing at least one of a mechanical fixture design, a workcell design, and a controls design. The method also includes the steps of executing a virtual programmable logic control VPLC simulation with a VPLC verification simulator to verify at least one of the mechanical fixture design, the workcell design, and the controls design.
One advantage of the present invention is that a method of embedding tooling control data within a mechanical fixture design to enable programmable logic control verification simulation is provided for use in building a manufacturing line to manufacture a motor vehicle.
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Another advantage of the present invention is that the method reduces the amount of time it takes to conduct virtual programmable logic control verification simulations. Yet another advantage of the present invention is that the method increases the accuracy of virtual programmable logic control verification simulations. Still another advantage of the present invention is that the method lowers the potential for loosing mechanical design assumptions related to control system design through a body shop fixture tooling design process, such as naming conventions, tooling sequence description, bill of materials for control and mechanical items, etc.
A further advantage of the present invention is that the method supports effective control logic system design simulation approach by automatically producing tooling visualization data that describes the allowable tooling behavior, that is used by a virtual programmable logic controller. Yet a further advantage of the present invention is that the method exports mechanical fixture data such that all the relationships are maintained between tooling items that move e.
Still a further advantage of the present invention is that the method exports fabrication information from a mechanical fixture design to support a floor build of tooling. Other features and advantages of the present invention will be readily appreciated, as the same becomes better understood, after reading the subsequent description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. Referring to the drawings and in particular FIG.
In the present invention, an operator 12 uses the system 10 to perform programmable logic control verification simulation. The system 12 includes a computer 14 to send and receive information to and from a design engineering source 16 via an electronic link. The design engineering source 16 includes a product design system, work cell design system, manufacturing cell design system, mechanical fixture and tooling design system, controls design system, plant layout design system, and other manufacturing line related design systems to provide engineering data for standard components, tools, fixture models, and robots to interact with the fixture models.
These design systems have the ability to read and write in a neutral file format. It should be appreciated that the above-mentioned design systems use either a specific file format such as VLE or other neutral file formats such as XML that contain information organized in a manner that is recognized and readily useable. It should also be appreciated that the neutral file formats are conventional and known in the art. The computer 14 also sends and receives information to and from a manufacturing engineering source 18 via an electronic link.
The manufacturing engineering source 18 includes data on manufacturing engineering such as a tooling line. The manufacturing engineering source 18 also sends and receives information to and from a manufacturing line build source 20 via an electronic link. The manufacturing line build source 20 includes data for building the manufacturing line not shown for the manufacture of parts not shown for a motor vehicle not shown.
The computer 14 also sends and receives information from a programmable logic control verification simulator 22 via an electronic link to verify the PLC for the manufacturing line. The manufacturing line verification simulator 22 verifies stand-alone workcells, workcell to workcell interactions, and total manufacturing line operation. The manufacturing line build source 20 automatically generates the programmable logic controller PLC code, which is then used at physical tool build.
An example of automatically generating PLC code for building a physical tool is disclosed in U. It should be appreciated that the computer 12 , electronic links, and sources are conventional and known in the art. Referring to FIGS. In general, the method embeds tooling control data within a mechanical fixture design to enable programmable logic control verification simulation of the PLC code.
The method facilitates the automatic inclusion and embedding of control related data in three dimensional computer aided drafting CAD mechanical fixture design and exports and aligns mechanical, control, and visualization data to be readily usable by the virtual programmable logic control verification simulator 22 for control system design verification. It should be appreciated that the method is carried out on the computer 14 of the system 10 by the operator Referring to FIG. In block , the method receives a description of a purchasable component such as a clamp from a library in the design engineering source The design engineering source 16 may include product design, manufacturing cell design, mechanical fixture and tooling design, plant layout design, and other manufacturing line related design data.
The product design information may be a single part or a plurality of parts to be assembled in a manufacturing line. The manufacturing cell design information typically includes flexible automation, for example robots, material handling, etc. The fixture and tooling design information typically includes hard tooling such as a clamp. The plant layout design information typically includes location of the manufacturing line, for example location of columns, aisles, etc. The other manufacturing line design information typically includes intersection points of other manufacturing lines where two manufacturing lines merge , location of control panels, remote valving stations, energy cabinets, and other items that take up space that potentially could interfere with tool movements and operator interactions.
In block , the method updates a library in the design engineering source 16 to adhere to industry standards. After block or block , the method advances to block and receives standard library elements from the design engineering source The standard library elements include a description of geometry, description of allowed behavior, fabrication information, control attributes, and kinematics. After block , the method advances to either block or In block , the method receives information of a mechanical fixture design from the design engineering source The mechanical fixture design includes mechanical sequence operations, predecessor relationships, motion files, and tessellated geometry.
The method advances to block and exports the information of the mechanical fixture design. The method advances to diamond and determines whether the mechanical fixture design is good or acceptable. For example, the operator 12 determines whether the clamp is of the correct size and shape. If the mechanical fixture design is good, the method advances to diamond to be described.
In diamond , if the mechanical fixture design is not good or correct, the method returns to block , previously described, to adjust the description of the mechanical fixture design by the fixture design system in the design engineering source The method then advances to block previously described. It should be appreciated that the information is imported and exported from the systems within the design engineering source In diamond , the method determines whether workcell components are required.
For example, the operator 12 determines whether a robot is needed to interact with the workpiece. If workcell components are required, the method advances to block and imports the data of the mechanical fixture design for block In block , the method receives information of the mechanical fixture design and selects the workcell design from the design engineering source The workcell design includes mechanical sequence operations, predecessor relationships, motion files, tessellated geometry, and sensors.
The method advances to block and exports the information of the workcell design. The method then advances to diamond and determines whether the workcell design is good or acceptable. For example, the operator 12 determines whether there is interference between a clamp moving and the location of a column of the manufacturing plant. If the workcell design is good, the method advances to block to be described. In diamond , if the workcell design is not good or correct, the method returns to block and block , previously described, to adjust the description of the workcell design by the workcell design system in the design engineering source In block , the method selects a controls design from the design engineering source For example, the operator selects the controls to be used for the manufacturing line.
After block , the method advances to block and exports the information of the controls design. The mixer has a conversion gain of 18 dB and an input referred third-order intermodulation intercept point of 16 dBm. The combination draws 5. Power consumption has become one of the main concerns in embedded system design. Currently, design platforms are composed of generic and specific hardware devices and general-purpose processors running the application software. SW functionality has a mayor impact on the total system power consumption.
Early estimation of the power consumption of the application SW is crucial in order to take the correct design decisions as soon as possible. In this paper we exploit the 'almost' constant relationship between machine instructions executed per second and the corresponding power consumption found in many embedded processors. Based on this property, a technique to estimate the SW power consumption has been developed based on source code simulation.
Short simulation times are achieved with high accuracy, so the technique can be applied at early stages of the design flow. New tendencies in the consumer electronics market present Multi-Processor Systems-On-Chip MPSoCs as a promising solution for meeting the processing demands of upcoming generations of user applications. MPSoCs are complex to design, as they must execute multiple applications real-time video processing, 3D games , while meeting additional design constraints energy consumption, time-to-market. When an integrated system is built for a certain MPSoC, the definition of an appropriate floorplan is a very complex task for system integration designers.
In fact, deciding a suitable placement of each block in the MPSoC architecture requires taking into account multiple constraints e. Recently, due to the increasing temperature in MPSoCs, thermal behavior has become another key factor to define the placement of each block of the design. Starting with a set of constrains performance, latency It will also guide the designer in selecting the right packaging solution for the final chip, minimizing the cost without compromising the chip reliability. Out platform enables thermal monitorization of the final real applications over the different architectures, at speeds very close to real time, as opposed to SW simulators.
The system to be partitioned is epresented as an acyclic task graph, for which a set of constraints on makespan, area, and code size exist. The restricted range exhaustive search algorithm is introduced that is well suited for the subset of human made task graphs, since it exploits their typical characteristics such as locality, sparsity, and their degree of parallelism.
This methodology or procedure is based on developing a library with well known behavior and predictable delays and latencies. The flow presented here is a speculative a priori analysis of architectural and topological characteristics of AMBA 3 AXI bus interconnection schemes and can be applied and generalized to any other defined protocol.
For contrasting all these results we use a demanding validation scenario with a particular architecture belonging to the domain of MPEG4 video decoding, which is composed of an AXI bus connecting a processor, an IDCT module and other processing resources implemented on a FPGA platform. In this work, a monolithic CMOS preamplifier with automatic gain control, which works at 3. The proposed circuit minimizes the temperature effects and achieves adaptive transresistance, dB, with the bandwidth and the quality factor almost constant.
The circuit was designed in 0. Juan M. Francisco Duque-Carrillo. This paper introduces the design of a continuous-time common-mode feedback CMFB network consisting of two unity-gain buffers and two passive resistors. The proposed approach features an improved linearity performance and a high immunity to device mismatches.
Thus, the introduced circuit is compared to a previous CMFB solution on the bases of their corresponding theoretical and simulated behaviours. The CMFB circuits studied have been included in the design of a fully-differential voltage buffer, implemented by means of a fully-differential difference amplifier. Simulated results, obtained in a 0. In this paper, the analysis and design of two continuously tunable preamplifiers for optical communications is carried out.
Both transimpedance amplifiers were realized in a low-cost digital 0. Simulations show a transimpedance variation range of more than 12dBohm with an almost constant bandwidth of 1GHz. Furthermore, the proposed configurations are characterized by their low-power operation and low input-referred spectral noise. This paper presents a differential CMOS programmable gain amplifier PGA suitable for low-voltage operation over the very high frequency range. The scheme is based on a very simple common-mode feedforward pseudo-differential pair topology with resistive loads.
Designed in a 0. The programmable gain varies linearly in-dB from 0 to 12 dB in 6 dB steps through a 2-bit word while fine tuning allows obtaining the intermediate gains. Thanks to a power-free bandwidth enhancement technique, it achieves a -3 dB bandwidth above 1. Routing Optimization for Over the last years, wireless multihop ad hoc networks have received a tremendous interest from research groups. The major focal point has been the routing protocols, i. Each node in an ad hoc network may work as a router to relay connections or data packets to their destinations.
The key issues of ad hoc networking are MAC Medium Access Control , which is used to share common channels resources among wireless nodes, and routing layers. In this work, we have implemented a routing protocol based on the multihop algorithm to transmit any kind of information from any source to any destination node.
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We have focused on an indoor wireless sensor network, where all the links between nodes have a line-of-sight propagation. The frequency band used is centered at 2. We have implemented software strategies to minimize the power consumption because of the great importance of this issue for this kind of networks. For multihop wireless networks, one of the most important questions are if it is advantageous to route over many short hops short-hop routing or over a smaller number of longer hops long-hop routing.
Another important question is how does the route selection depend on the topology of the network. We will show as well in this paper that ad hoc network must have a trade-off between hop distance and reception rate. This compromise will give us the best route to minimize the power consumption and maximize the transmission success probability.
We as well show in this paper that topology does not affect significantly to the packet error rate mainly due to the fact that we are considering LOS indoor networks. Francisco J. Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs are composed of a large number of very small devices used for biomedical or environmental monitoring applications. These devices measure various natural processes at different locations, and cooperate in order to aggregate the information. In this paper we propose an accurate model based on the TinyOS simulator TOSSIM for wireless sensor devices, which can be used to precisely estimate the network performance or the power consumption of real-life sensor nodes.
This model helps us to evaluate the impact on network performance of making changes in the node architecture or in the communication layers.
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Nowadays the use of wireless technologies provides a great benefit to the society. This article shows a wireless sensor network for Intravenous Dripping System, which can detect when an intravenous liquid, provided to patients in hospitals, run out, as well as detecting obstructions in the catheter. This way, the attention in sanitary centers is more efficient and immediate, as the observation of the state of the container will not need human supervision. The work displayed in this article is still being developed within the framework of INTEK projects founded by the Basque Government, in cooperation with Atica Innovation.
The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the possibilities of using WSNs for generating musical effects through the use of conventional sensors. Different sensors in several nodes take measurement from the environment and send data to a central node connected to a PC, which generates music depending on the values of the parameters taken. The paper shows other applications of the platform to demonstrate the usefulness and the flexibility of the hardware platform. It is generally accepted that fundamental physical limitations will eventually inhibit further C MOS feature size reduction.
Several emerging nano-electronic technologies with greater scaling potential, such as Single Electron Tunnelling SET , are currently under investigation. Each of those exhibits its own switching behavior, resulting in new paradigms for logic design and computation. This paper presents an analysis of various design styles that might be potentially utilized in conjunction with SET devices. We discuss and compare three different SET designs styles as follows: CMOS-alike logic, based on SET transistors; Single Electron Encoded Logic, based on threshold gates that utilize the intrinsic behavior of SET tunnel junctions; Electron Counting logic, based on direct encoding of integers as charge combined with computation via charge transport.
Our analysis clearly indicate that the last two approaches are more promising as they make a better use of the specific properties and behavior of the SET devices. Optical inputs in wavelength regime of communication networks are discussed to control the Monostable-Bistable Transition Logic Element.
We report on the monolithic integration of this gate with a photodiode and heterostructure transistors using InP-technology. The switching behaviour of the gate is carefully analysed. Novel Monostable-Bistable Transition Logic Element applications with optical inputs for both signal and clock will be presented. In addition, a pulse generation for impulse radio will be discussed. Finally, the potential of monolithic integration on a Silicon substrate will be addressed. In this study, the relationship between the number of processing elements size and the number of connections links of several network topologies is explored and compared with: i a new more accurate interpretation of Rent's rule; as well as with ii an equivalent experimental rule for mammalian brains.
Multiple-valued Logic MVL circuits are one of the most attractive applications of the Monostable-to-Multistable transition Logic MML , and they are on the basis of advanced circuits for communications. However, a proper design is not inherent to the usual MML circuit topologies. This paper analyses the case of an MML ternary inverter, and determines the relations that circuit representative parameters must verify to obtain a correct behaviour. Creating Partially Reconfigurable Systems. Partial reconfiguration is a process where part of an FPGA is reconfigured while the rest is running uninterrupted.
However, there are still limitations on methods, architectures and even information from the vendors, making reconfigurability not that easy from the design point of view. This paper brings the needed basic knowledge to successfully and optimally build partially reconfigurable systems.
It is a result from our experience with partial reconfigurable systems, and includes different approaches taken by several research groups that are contrasted with our approach. Bitstream formats, tools, FPGA architectures and examples of implemented reconfigurable systems are discussed. Soft computing techniques are gaining momentum as tools for network traffic modeling, analysis and control.
Efficient hardware implementations of these techniques that can achieve real-time operation in high-speed communications equipment is however an open problem. This paper describes a platform for the development of fuzzy systems with applications to communications systems, namely network traffic analysis and control.
For the development process, we set up a methodology and a CAD tools chain that cover from initial specification in a high-level language to implementation on FPGA devices. We outline results from the design and implementation of fuzzy analyzers and regulators for network traffic. These systems are shown to satisfy operational and architectural requirements of current and future high-performance routing equipment.
The decoder uses the Viterbi algorithm for the detection and correction of errors. The importance of communication systems involve designs based on power efficiency, bandwidth efficiency or system complexity. Key aspects of these systems imply the use of coding to improve reliability and performance. This scheme was analysed emulating a complete communication system in an FPGA, and validated with theoretical values of an equivalent Matlab model. Applications of this analysis allow fitting the best scheme for different integrations in several systems, ranging from low complexity systems in FPGAs, to complex ASICs.
A fast-settling highly linear envelope detector structure is proposed in this work based on a sample and hold circuit. This circuit does not need the traditional compensation between keeping and tracking required in these circuits due to a system by what the signal peaks are held in two periods and combined to obtain the envelope of the signal.
At the same time, it solves some drawbacks due to switches used in this kind of circuit when this technique has been employed, such as nonlinearities due to charge injection in switches, which reduces the linearity of these circuits. Furthermore, this envelope detector has a dynamic range above 40dB for nonlinearities below 1dB. The classical external data acquisition systems and digital to analogue conversion methods are compared with frequency acquisition techniques.
For computing data, a matrix of simple low cost CISC pipelined processors developed for this application has been used, which offers fast data processing in low area occupation. To avoid a bottleneck overflow in the data processor dispatcher, a complete architecture that includes an arbiter and two FIFOS has been designed.
The drastic effects of mismatch can be especially noticeable in the unruly behavior of the network dynamics because of asymmetries in the feedback template. In the case of linear diffusion, that can be mapped into the discretized space of the CNN grid, minimal deviations with regard to the ideal values of the weights cause divergent dynamics and thus invalid results. In order to accomplish a reliable linear diffusion, we propose to force stability with the help of the B-template.
By tuning the strength of the input, the radius of the diffusion is limited and the effect of the mismatch on the weights is restrained. Unstable equilibrium points are removed.
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To obtain the desired global diffusion, the controlled diffusion can be iterated over the output of the previous local diffusion, although temporal restrictions of each application will determine the limit of iterations that can be carried out. In this way, global linear diffusion can be achieved with mismatch-affected hardware, e. We have found the analytical justification for this claim in the case of a simple 2- cell CNN, and have numerically tested the predicted behavior in a large network.
A new source follower type analogue buffer for active matrix displays, designed by using low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistors TFTs , is proposed. The buffer, consisting of six n-type polysilicon TFTs and two additional control signal, exhibits high immunity to threshold voltage and mobility variations. The functionality of the proposed buffer was verified by HSpice simulations. In order to fulfill the specifications of the BTM architectures for both the transmitter and receiver are proposed.
The different kinds of modulations to be transmitted are studied pointing terms of the required bandwidth. The proposed transmitter and receiver have a gain of 36dB and 21dB respectively. A low power communication interface to enable the IR optical communications between mm3-sized robots in a swarm is presented. The robots will be deployed in an arena of A4 paper size with controlled illumination conditions. The interface deals with variations of the IR background light from point to point in the arena, with inter-robot orientation and distance, i.
This article shows a new system, located in both cabs of a train, to communicate with a GSM-R network. The implementation of this system is composed by two modules: voice and data. The selection of suitable architectures for the most critical blocks interleaver and IFFT of the design is explained and justified. We present a neuromorphic fully digital convolution microchip for Address Event Representation AER spike-based processing systems. This microchip computes 2-D convolutions with programmable kernel in real time. It operates on a pixel array of size 32 x 32, but an array of n x m chips can be tiled to process larger images, so that each individual chip works with a small part of the whole image and all the different outputs together form the total image.
The kernel is programmable and can be of arbitrary shape and size of up to 32 x 32 pixels. The chip receives and generates data in AER format, which is asynchronous and digital. The paper describes the architecture of the chip, the test setup, and experimental results obtained from fabricated chip prototypes. The computation core consists in specific integrated circuits ASIC that emulate neurons' electrical activity using a biophysical model.
The connectivity and plasticity of the network are digitally computed using digital programmable circuits FPGA. A custom printed board hosts all the components and is connected to a computer by serial link. The network activity respects biological real-time. In this paper the electronics of a light pheromone following system is presented. The sensor used is a solar cell placed on the top of the robot. The interface is composed of an analog front-end circuit and a control unit. Software and hardware following strategies are presented. Test results of the designed interface are given.
The system has been designed by using a 0. In this paper we briefly summarize the fundamental properties of spike events processing applied to artificial vision systems. This sensing and processing technology is capable of very high speed throughput, because it does not rely on sensing and processing sequences of frames, and because it allows for complex hierarchically structured cortical-like layers for sophisticated processing. The paper describes briefly cortex-like spike event vision processing principles, and the AER Address Event Representation technique used in hardware spiking systems.
Afterwards an example application is described, which is a simplification of Fukushima's Neocognitron. Realistic behavioral simulations based on existing AER hardware characteristics, reveal that the simplified neocognitron, although it processes 13 large kernel convolutions, is capable of performing recognition in less than 3us.
Full open defects on the interconnection cause the broken lines to become floating lines. The voltage of a floating line depends on its topological characteristics, namely: parasitic capacitances to neighbouring structures, transistor capacitances of the downstream gate s and the trapped charge. Floating lines can not be considered electrically isolated anymore and are subjected to transient evolutions until arriving at a quiescent state, determined by the technology and the downstream gate s. The occurrence of full opens as well as the impact of the gate tunnelling leakage is expected to increase for future technologies.
Theoretical analysis and experimental evidence of this behaviour is presented for an industrial chip of 0. In this paper a new design for CMOS comparator is presented.
This circuit is simulated using predictive 70nm CMOS technology models. The results show significant improvement in noise immunity and also fairly considerable total power reduction. Proposed circuit simulated for high fan-ins 8, 16, 32, and 64 bits. Also, for some of circuits, our proposed circuit had a higher speed. The need to take into account leakage currents in the first stages of the design process requires current estimators with good execution time -accuracy trade-off. In this paper, we present a new technique to address the problem of estimating leakage power consumption with low-computational effort.
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