Cosmo , Co-Operative Housekeeping in Tenements by Elizabeth Bislands, collection of Maggie Land Blanck Tenements Improvements Housing laws did improve the lives of tenement dwellers and some wealthy real estate investors put their money in tenement housing. By new tenement buildings were being constructed to address some of the worst issues of tenement life.
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Between 71 and 72 on First Avenue a six story building was erected around a courtyard so that every room had a window. The apartments themselves had running water and contained three to four "good sized" rooms with closets. The building contained elevators for coal and garbage and an ash chute. The halls were warmed in winter and lit all year. Each tenant had a space in the cellar to store his coal. In addition there was a bath room on the ground floor of each section that contained bath tubs with hot and cold running water.
This building had a "Sun Parlor" on the roof. Changed from a den of disease and vice to a decent place to live in, by a model landlord, Miss Ellen Collins. The house yields 5. Discomforts of Tenement Life. New York City - The recent "heated term" and its effect upon the population of the tenement districts A night scene on the East Side - from sketch by a staff artist. Frank Leslie's illustrated newspaper, Aug.
Crowding There are a lot of reports in books and the popular press about the extremely crowded conditions in the tenements. And yet more than that number of residents were counted some time ago in a house two doors from Camp Memorial Church. However, there also may have been some overstating by reform minded individuals. There were reportedly hundreds of rag pickers living at 88 - 90 Sheriff Street. Yet when I investigated that address I found only a few families.
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See Sheriff Street. The old woman holding the baby is a possible reference to multi-generations living together as was the case of the Goehle family when they were on Sheriff Street in There was and economic panic in which resulted in a four year depression. The economy began to improve in Eviction Eviction was a common fact of a lifestyle that was often hand to mouth.
An illness or death in the family could result in a significant reduction in income and an inability to pay the rent. Widows with small children were particularly susceptible to eviction. Assistance often came in the form of family friends and neighbors taking up a collection to tide the family over. Hundreds and thousands in great cities like New York, unable to find steady employment, are at the present time suffering for want of common necessaries of life. The coal, the food, the clothing, without which they would perish, consume their chance and scanty earnings, and the dreaded rent-day to often finds them without the means to prevent their being turned out into the streets, or forced to take refuge in some wretched tenement garrett or cellar, wholly unfit for human beings to life in.
Fortunate are the poor who have compassionate landlords willing to wait for their rent until better times come round again. The tools on the floor indicated that this father was a carpenter. There was a financial "panic" in the fall of The Stock Market closed for ten days starting on September It took years for the economy to recover. Construction slowed, wages were cut and real estate values fell. This image seem to portray a multi-generational family.
If the breadwinner was hurt, he or she would be out of work. The landlady has "turned out" this father, mother and their five children and all their possessions. Peckwell "Evicted - on the Sidewalk" from Life in New York Tenement-Houses" as seen by a city missionary, This poor lady, her baby and two small children are out on the streets with their meager possessions.
Bathing Bathing, even among the upper classes, was not popular before the late s. As health authorities began to become aware of the need for public hygiene, bathing was encouraged for all classes and in state legislature mandated the availability of public baths in cities of 50, or more. A majority of tenements in the s did not have indoor plumbing. Those apartments with running water had only cold. In some tenements the only water came from a faucet in an unlit hall way and some tenements had only one facet per building, supplying up to fifty tenants. Bathroom, when available, where most likely no more than one per floor and shared by several tenants.
The common bath frequently did not include a tub or shower. In , there were areas in New York where 36 baths were shared by at least 2, families and in some blocks there are as many as families and no bath at all. Tenement bathing usually took place in the kitchen in a dish pan, the sink, or a portable tub. To make bathing available to the tenement dwellers the city build public baths. The first public bath in Manhattan was opened on Rivington Street in and in five months accommodated , bathers, about three times as many men as women.
In there were 7 public baths in the Manhattan, five were under municipal management and were absolutely free, the other two charged a minimum fee for soap and a towel. There were four more baths under construction and one in the planning stage. In addition there were floating baths along the river. These were as much swimming pools as places to wash, thus combining recreation and public hygiene. The floating baths were a kind of wooden wharf enclosing a swimming pool that allowed the river water to flow through.
In the floating baths were used by 5 or 6 million in the summer season.
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Some young men braved the dangers of the rivers by jumping off the docks to take a summer swim. Library of Congress Ladies Day at the city Baths. Library of Congress Mens Day at the city Baths. The Shower Bath in Public School , New York While the article includes this photo, very little was said about the use of showers in public schools.
The children do appear to be standing in front of a swimming pool. Waiting room in the Public Baths The baths cost 5 cents, including soap and a towel. This bath had 17 shower heads for men, 6 shower heads for women, 3 tubs for "old women" and children. In July 17, people made use of the facilities. The tenement house problem: including the report of the New York Tenement House Commission. Library of Congress While not "officially" a bath, boys had the advantage of cooling off and maybe getting a little clean by jumping off any pier, into any river or fountain. Library of Congress Laundry With all the talk about how dirty the tenement district was it is very impressive how many images of the tenements show laundry on the line - outside if the weather permitted inside if it was inclement.
Bedooms pich dark; sixty windows open on this air shaft. Yard of tenement, New York, N. The Privy. Cosmo , Co-Operative Housekeeping in Tenements by Elizabeth Bislands, collection of Maggie Land Blanck "The Water Supply for Three Ludlow Street Tenement Houses " While there is a lot of discussion in the literature of the period about washing of persons, washing of clothes, water in court yards and water in apartments, there is almost no mention of toilets or lack thereof.
Other than the occasionally mention of a chamber pot almost nothing is said. While this image is entitled "the water supply" the toilets in the background may not have been supplied with water. In other words, they may have been old-fashioned pit outhouses AKA privies. Interestingly a lot of archaeological work has been done on the lives of tenement dwellers in New York as a result of excavating these old privies because people threw or dropped a variety of items in the privy.
A lot of information about the lives of the people who live in Five Points has been obtained from the excavations of the privies in the area. Only 18 articles from the collection survived because they were on loan at the time.
So the only remnants are the images on the web site and in some publications. Other outhouses, called school sinks, were rows of cubicles over a concrete vault which was connected to a common waste system. The system was periodically sluiced with water which flushed the wasted into a public sewer line. In the law in New York required 1 indoor toilet for every two apartments. See Plumbing Supply. Food and Shopping Most tenement dwellings did not have refrigeration until the s. In the summer time it was necessary to shop frequently since the food would not keep.
Click on the image of Mulberry Street to see more images and get more information on street venders on the Lower East Side. Library of Congress Grocery store Deutsch "There was no refrigeration so food shopping was usually done daily basis and butchers tried not keep meat more than a day. In most cases, smaller animals were kept alive until bought, then dispatched and dressed to be cooked that day. These included freshwater fish, fowl and rabbits. Fresh food preservation was based on ice which was harvested from the Hudson river and lakes upstate in January and February and stored in ice warehouses for sale throughout the year.
In New York City it was stored on barges. Of course if it was a mild winter there was no ice. Many tenements had iceboxes in which a chunk of ice was put in the top of an insulated box with a door in the front. The iceman would have been a common sight for Esther and Ignatz who carried chunks of ice up and down the stairs to customers in later years. By mechanical ice plants were the norm and by the 's electric refrigerators were introduced.
Shortly thereafter, NYC saw the establishment of regular delivery routes for natural ice. That cost could rapidly consume a large part of the budget on a regular basis when you consider wages being paid in the late 19th century. Probably the only people who could afford large quantities of ice on the Lower East Side in the s were those doing well and butchers and fish mongers who could spread the cost among the clientele. Whether most people or any of the Berger children had an iced box is questionable, putting to one side the issue of space.
On average, such a purchase would have represented a month's rent for immigrant families. However a number did have a small insulated chest or box which as kept on the fire escape. My impression is that food was bought in the quantities needed and prepared and consumed on a daily basis. To the extent there were cooked left overs they were consumed the next day. In tenements, meal preparation was a challenge [if the family was poor] that required effort from every member of the family. Children scavenged wood for the stove, and mothers stretched every penny, shopping at pushcarts where vendors were willing to sell just half a parsnip for that day's soup or stew.
Deutsch, December See also Butchers. Pets The following images are also found in other sections of this page and other related pages. I gathered them together to illustrated the fact that people obviously kept pets including cats, dogs, and even apparently a pigeon. The Cliff-Dwellers of New York Lest we think that only the working poor lived in multi storied multi family dwellings - such buildings were also the home of the wealthy.
However, there were some major differences. Everett N Blanke in the "Cliff Dwellers of New York" published in Cosmo in says the distinction between an apartment house and a tenement is "somewhat hazy" until one considers the etymology of the two words. Economy, there fore, is the purpose of the tenement - comfort that of the apartment. The first "apartment" house, called Stuyvesant, was build in By New York contained "apartment" houses. Nearly all of them were equipped with "electrical and steam appliances".
This included the passenger elevator which made the upper stories of these building more - instead of less desirable - as the top floors of walk up tenements were. The easily accessible top floor was far away from the dust and noise of the street and nearer a cooling summer breeze.
However, most of New York's wealthy left the city to spent the summer at their county or beach houses. Eclectic lighting was clean, odorless and constant. Steam heat was controlled by a thermostat enabling a constant temperature. The ordinary apartment consisted of seven to ten spacious rooms generally all on one level.
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Moreover, the wealthy had servants - maids, butlers, cooks and nursemaids - to take care of those nasty chores for them. There are numerous venders of historical images and articles who cut up old publication and sell them as individual items. Unfortunately, when I bought this article the name and date of the periodical were missing. I had tentatively dated the article to because Elsing makes reference to "The first bath was opened last August".
Trying to give an exact date to Elsing's article, I looked on line. I can find several references to an article of exactly the same title attributed to Scribners June Unfortunately, I was not able to access the actual article. The reference to the baths opening a year before is confusing but I believe that the article I have is that from Scribners June William T.
Elsing was a minister and social reformer whos name is connected in several publications with the well known social reformer, Jacob Riis. William T Elsing was born in in Holland. He was listed in the Census in Queens as a preacher with his wife Mary and two sons, Morris, age 17, and Warren, age 14 and a servant. In he was listed in Ward 19 Brooklyn, as a boarder, married, clergyman city mission, his wife was not listed.
COMMONWEALTH vs. LEON D. JAFFE (and a companion case ).
In he was in Manhattan, pastor church, age 69 widowed. Emily Wayland Dinwiddie born died was a social worker. The law classes all dwellings containing three or more families as tenement houses, but the true tenement house is an institution peculiar to New York. There are about 70, buildings in the city used for purposes of business and as dwellings, and of these, 20, are tenement houses, containing about , families, or about , people. This would give an average population of eight families or twenty persons to each tenement house in the city.
In the number of tenement houses was 18, The reader will no doubt suppose that the inmates of these houses are compelled to remain in them because of extreme poverty. This is not the case. The tenement houses are occupied mainly by the honest laboring population of New York, who receive fair wages for their work. They herd here because the rents of single houses are either out of proportion to, or beyond their means, and because they are convenient to their work.
They are not paupers, but they cannot afford the fearful cost of a separate home, and they are forced to resort to this mode of life in order to live with any degree of comfort. Did the city possess some means of rapid transit between its upper and lower extremities, which would prevent the loss of the time now wasted in traversing the length of the island, there can be no doubt that the tenement sections would soon be thinned out.
There are two classes of tenement houses in the city. Those occupied by the well-to-do working people, and those which are simply the homes of the poor. The first are immense, but spruce looking structures, and are kept cleaner than the latter, but all suffer from the evils incident to and inseparable from such close packing. Those of the second class are simply dens of vice and misery. In the older quarters of the city, many of the old time residences are now occupied as tenement houses. It is now one of the most wretched tenement houses in the city.
The tenement houses of the upper wards, however, were constructed for the uses to which they are put. As pecuniary investments they pay well, the rents sometimes yielding as much as thirty per cent. One of them shall serve as a description of the average tenement house. The building stands on a lot with a front of 50 feet, and a depth of feet. It has an alley running the whole depth on each side of it. These alley-ways are excavated to the depth of the cellars, arched over, and covered with flag stones, in which, at intervals, are open gratings to give light below; the whole length of which space is occupied by water closets, without doors, and under which are open drains communicating with the street sewers.
The building is five stories high, and has a flat roof. The only ventilation is by a window, which opens against a dead wall eight feet distant, and to which rises the vapor from the vault below. There is water on each floor, and gas pipes are laid through the building, so that those who desire it can use gas. The building contains families, or about inhabitants. Each family has a narrow sitting-room, which is used also for working and eating, and a closet called a bed room. But few of the rooms are properly ventilated.
The sun never shines in at the windows, and if the sky is overcast the rooms are so dark as to need artificial light. The whole house is dirty, and is filled with the mingled odors from the cooking-stoves and the sinks. In the winter the rooms are kept too close by the stoves, and in the summer the natural heat is made tenfold greater by the fires for cooking and washing.
Pass these houses on a hot night, and you will see the streets in front of them filled with the occupants, and every window choked up with human heads, all panting and praying for relief and fresh air. Sometimes the families living in the close rooms we have described, take "boarders," who pay a part of the expenses of the "establishment. During the past winter, however, many of the East side streets have become horribly filthy. The reader must not suppose that the house just described is an exceptional establishment.
In the Eleventh and Seventeenth wards whole streets, for many blocks, are lined with similar houses. There are many single blocks of dwellings containing twice the number of families residing on Fifth avenue, on both sides of that street, from Washington Square to the Park, or than a continuous row of dwellings similar to those on Fifth avenue, three or four miles in length. The Fourth ward, covering an area of 83 acres, contains 23, inhabitants. The city of Springfield Massachusetts , contains 26, inhabitants. The Eleventh ward, comprising acres, contains more people than the cities of Mobile Alabama , and Salem Massachusetts , combined.
The Seventh ward, covering acres, contains more inhabitants than the city of Syracuse New York. The Seventeenth ward, covering acres, contains more inhabitants than the city of Cleveland Ohio , which is the fifteenth city in the Union in respect of population. The best of the tenement houses are uncomfortable. Where so large a number of people are gathered under the same roof to live as they please, it is impossible to keep the premises clean.
A very large portion of them are in bad repair and in equally bad sanitary condition. In these houses made up fifty-two per cent. Many of them are simply appalling. They become more wretched and squalid as the East River and Five Points sections are reached. Cherry, Water, and the neighboring streets, are little better than charnel houses.
About three months ago one of the most wretched rookeries in the city was cleared out and cleansed by order of the Board of Health. This was known as "Sweeney's," and stood in Gotham Court. The immediate cause of its overhauling was the discovery of its actual condition made by Detective Finn and Mr. Crapsey gives the following interesting account of his visit: "As we stopped in Cherry street at the entrance to Gotham Court, and Detective Finn dug a tunnel of light with his bullseye lantern into the foulness and blackness of that smirch on civilization, a score or more of boys who had been congregated at the edge of the court suddenly plunged back into the obscurity, and we heard the splash of their feet in the foul collections of the pavements.
Though why they should object to go to jail is more than I know; I'd rather stay in the worst dungeon in town than here. Come this way and I'll show you why. Coming to the first of these stairs, I was peremptorily halted by the foul stenches rising from below; but Finn, who had reached the bottom, threw back the relentless light upon the descending way and urged me on. Every step oozed with moisture and was covered sole deep with unmentionable filth; but I ventured on, and reaching my conductor, stood in a vault some twelve feet wide and two hundred long, which extended under the whole of West Gotham Court.
The walls of rough stone dripped with slimy exudations, while the pavements yielded to the slightest pressure of the feet a suffocating odor compounded of bilge-water and sulphuretted hydrogen. Upon one side of this elongated cave of horrors were ranged a hundred closets, every one of which reeked with this filth, mixed with that slimy moisture which was everywhere as a proof that the waters of the neighboring East River penetrated, and lingered here to foul instead of purify.
As he did so, the gurgling of water at the Cherry street end of the vault caught his ear, and penetrating thither, he peered curiously about. Its the sewer! I never knew of this opening into it before. That's nothing up where you are. I'll bet on the undertaker having more jobs in the house than ever. But Finn was exploring that sewer horror with his lantern. As I came down I had seen a pool of stagnant, green-coated water somewhere near the foot of the stairs, and, being afraid to stir in the thick darkness, was forced to call my guide, and, frankly state the urgent necessity for an immediate return above.
The matter-of-fact policeman came up, and cast the liberating light upon the stairs, but rebuked me as I eagerly took in the comparatively purer atmosphere from above. It was that of a youth of eighteen or twenty years, ruddy, puffed, with the corners of the mouth grotesquely twisted. The detective greeted the person owning this face with the fervor of old acquaintanceship: 'Eh, Buster!
What's up? What yez doin' here? Who with? Show me where you lodge. That unfortunate with the puffy face, who seemed to know his man too well to protract resistance, puffed ahead of us up the black, oozy court, with myriads of windows made ghastly by the pale flicker of kerosene lamps in tiers above us, until he came to the last door but one upon the left side of the court, over which the letter S was sprawled upon the coping stone. The bullseye had been darkened, and when the Buster plunged through the doorway he was lost to sight in the impenetrable darkness beyond. We heard him though, stumbling against stairs that creaked dismally, and the slide being drawn back, the friendly light made clear the way for him and us.
There was an entry precisely like the one we had entered before, with a flight of narrow, almost perpendicular stairs, with so sharp a twist in them that we could see only half up. The banisters in sight had precisely three uprights, and looked as if the whole thing would crumble at a touch; while the stairs were so smooth and thin with the treading of innumerable feet that they almost refused a foothold.
Following the Buster, who grappled with the steep and dangerous ascent with the daring born of habit, I somehow got up stairs, wondering how any one ever got down in the dark without breaking his neck. Thinking it possible there might be a light sometimes to guide the pauper hosts from their hazardous heights to the stability of the street, I inquired as to the fact, only to meet the contempt of the Buster for the gross ignorance that could dictate such a question.
Who'd give it? Not much! Or the tenants? Them's too poor! Turning triumphantly to the detective, he announced: 'Here's where I lodges, Jimmy! You knows I wouldn't lie to yez. Being told to come in, he opened it; and on this trivial but dexterous pretext we invaded the sanctity of a home. This home was composed, in the parlance of the place, of a 'room and bedroom. It had two windows opening upon the court, and a large fireplace filled with a cooking stove.
In the way of additional furniture, it had a common deal table, three broken wooden chairs, a few dishes and cooking utensils, and two 'shakedowns,' as the piles of straw stuffed into bed-ticks are called; but it had nothing whatever beyond these articles. There was not even the remnant of a bedstead; not a cheap print, so common in the hovels of the poor, to relieve the blankness of the rough, whitewashed walls. The bedroom, which was little more than half the size of the other, was that outrage of capital upon poverty known as a 'dark room,' by which is meant that it had no window opening to the outer air; and this closet had no furniture whatever except two 'shakedowns.
First there was the 'Pensioner,' a man of about thirty-five years, next his wife, then their three children, a woman lodger with two children, and the 'Buster,' the latter paying fifteen cents per night for his shelter; but I did not learn the amount paid by the woman for the accommodation of herself and children. The Buster, having been indignant at my inquiry as to the light upon the stairs, was now made merry by Finn supposing he had a regular bed and bedstead for the money.
Finn then touching on the number of drinks, the Buster, being driven into conjecture and a corner by the problem, was thrust out of the foreground of our investigations. From this source I learned that five dollars per month was paid as rent for these two third-floor rooms, and that everybody concerned deemed them dirt cheap at the price.
Light was obtained from kerosene lamps at the expense of the tenant, and water had to be carried from the court below, while all refuse matter not emptied into the court itself, had to be taken to the foul vaults beneath it. The rooms, having all these drawbacks, and being destitute of the commonest appliances for comfort or decency, did not appear to be in the highest degree eligible; yet the Pensioner considered himself fortunate in having secured them. His experience in living must have been very doleful, for he declared that he had seen worse places.
In itself, and so far as the landlord was concerned, I doubted him; but I had myself seen fouler places than these two rooms, which had been made so by the tenants. All that cleanliness could do to make the kennel of the Pensioner habitable had been done, and I looked with more respect upon the uncouth woman who had scoured the rough floor white, than I ever had upon a gaudily attired dame sweeping Broadway with her silken trail. The thrift that had so little for its nourishment had not been expended wholly upon the floor, for I noticed that the two children asleep on the shakedown were clean, while the little fellow four years of age, who was apparently prepared for bed as he was entirely naked, but sat as yet upon one of the three chairs, had no speck of dirt upon his fair white skin.
A painter should have seen him as he gazed wonderingly upon us, and my respect deepened for the woman who could, spite the hard lines of her rugged life, bring forth and preserve so much of childish symmetry and beauty. This usually occurs during greetings, intense play or when they're about to be punished. Dogs sometimes deposit urine or feces, usually in small amounts, to scent-mark their territory. Both male and female dogs do this, and it most often occurs when they believe their territory has been invaded.
Dogs who become anxious when they're left alone may house soil as a result.
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Usually, there are other symptoms, such as destructive behavior or vocalization see information on separation anxiety. If your dog is afraid of loud noises, such as thunderstorms or fireworks, he may house soil when he's exposed to these sounds. All rights reserved.
Re-Housetraining Your Adult Dog
Establish a routine Take your dog out at the same times every day. For example, first thing in the morning when he wakes up, when you arrive home from work, and before you go to bed. Praise your dog lavishly every time he eliminates outdoors. You can even give him a treat. You must praise him and give him a treat immediately after he's finished and not wait until after he comes back inside the house. This step is vital, because rewarding your dog for eliminating outdoors is the only way he'll know that's what you want him to do.
Choose a location not too far from the door to be the bathroom spot. Always take your dog, on leash, directly to the bathroom spot. Take him for a walk or play with him only after he's eliminated. If you clean up an accident in the house, leave the soiled rags or paper towels in the bathroom spot. The smell will help your dog recognize the area as the place where he's supposed to eliminate. While your dog is eliminating, use a word or phrase like "go potty," for example, that you can eventually use before he eliminates to remind him of what he's supposed to be doing.
Feeding your dog on a set schedule, once or twice a day, will help make his elimination more regular. Supervise, supervise, supervise Don't give your dog an opportunity to soil in the house. Confinement When you're unable to watch your dog at all times, he should be confined to an area small enough that he won't want to eliminate there. If you catch your dog in the act of eliminating in the house, do something to interrupt him like making a startling noise don't scare him.
Immediately take him to his bathroom spot, praise him, and give him a treat if he finishes eliminating there. Don't punish your dog for eliminating in the house. If you find a soiled area, it's too late to administer a correction. Do nothing but clean it up. Rubbing your dog's nose in it, taking him to the spot and scolding him, or any other type of punishment, will only make him afraid of you or afraid to eliminate in your presence. Animals don't understand punishment after the fact, even if it's only seconds later.
Punishment will do more harm than good.
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